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Full text of "Water Resources Champlain Upper Hudson Basins in New York State"

WATER RESOURCES af the 
CHAMPLAIN-UPPER HUDSON BASINS 
in New Yark State 


State of New York I Nelson A. Rockefeller, Governor I Office of Planning Coordination I D. David Brandon, Director 



WATER RESOURCES OF THE CHAMPLAIN-UPPER HUDSON BASINS 
IN NEW YORK STATE 


By G. L. Giese and W. A. Hobba, Jr. 
U.S. Geological Survey 


Prepared by the 
United States Department of the Interior, Geological Survey 
In cooperation with the 
New York State Conservation Department 
Division of Water Resources 


Published by the 
New York State Office of Planning Coordination 
488 Broadway 
Albany, New York, 12207 


1970 



CONTENTS 


Page 


Ab 5 t r act. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 
I n trod u c t ion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 
A c kn ow 1 e d 9 me n t s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 
Phy 5 i ca 1 se t tin g. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 
Water potential and water problems... ....................... ..... 9 
Water-oriented recreation........ ........... .................. 10 
Wa te r 5 u p ply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 
F 1 00 d s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 
Power d eve lop men t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 
N a vi ga t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 
I r r i ga t ion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 
Water qua 1 i ty.. ............. ........................ ..... ..... 12 
Water in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region.................... 14 
S t ream flow c h a r act e r i 5 tic s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 
Va ria b i 1 i t Y 0 f 5 t rea m flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 
S t rea m flow a t the 9 0 - per c en t d u rat ion poi n t. .. . .. . . . . . .. . .. . .. . .. 2 7 
Low - flow f r e que n c y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 
H i 9 h - flow f re que n c y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 
Reg ion a 1 f 1 00 d f r e que n c y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1 
Analysis of streamflow records...... ........ ........ .......... 32 
Regional flood-frequency curves.. ...... ..... ........ .......... 32 
Hyd ro 1 og i c a rea cu rve s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 
Determination of the design flood... ........... ............... 35 
Validity of results........................................... 38 
Water-supply storage requirements....... ........ ................. 39 
G ro u n d wa te r. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 
Occu rrence and ava i 1 ab i 1 i ty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 
Un co n so 1 i d a t ed de po 5 its. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 
San d and 9 rave 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 
Valle y - f ill de po 5 its. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 
Bur i ed 5 and de po 5 its. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 
S i 1 tan del a y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 
T ill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 
Co n so 1 i d ate d roc k 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 
Cry 5 tal 1 i nero c k s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 
Sandstone.................................................. 50 
Ca rbona te roc ks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 
Sha 1 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 
Tacon i c sequence........................................... 54 
Major ground-water areas. ...... ... ............................... 55 
Glen 5 Fa 11 5 a rea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 
P 1 a t t 5 bur 9 h are a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 
o the r a rea s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 
Minor ground-water areas......................................... 70 


ji 



CONTENTS (Continued) 


Page 


Wa te r qua 1 i ty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
A rea 1 va ria t i on 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Wa te r-qua 1 i ty P rob 1 ems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
R e c omm end a t ion s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Selected references............................................... 
A p pe n d i x. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


75 
75 
76 
85 
86 
88 


IllUSTRATIONS 


(Plates are in pocket) 


Plate 1. Hydrogeologic map of the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson 
region, northeastern New York, showing the location 
of wells, test borings, and springs. 


2. Map showing streamflow at the 90-percent duration point 
for selected streams in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson 
region, northeastern New York. 


Page 


Figure 1. Map of the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region showing 
da ta 5 i te 1 oca t i on s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 


2. Generalized bedrock geologic map........................ 6 


3. Three-dimensional view of a typical val ley 
showing the types and locations of unconsolidated 
de po 5 its. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 


4. The hydrologic cycle.................................... 14 


5. Map showing average annual precipitation................ 16 


6. Map showing average annual lake evaporation and water 
loss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 


7. Map showing average annual water yield.................. 18 


8. Map showing major areas where large amounts (between 
50 and 100 gpm) of ground water are generally 
ava i 1 ab 1 e fo r deve 1 opmen t f rom we 11 s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 


iii 



Figure 9. 


23. 


ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued) 


Hydrograph of daily discharge for the Hudson River near 
Newcomb for the 1966 water year, and precipitation 
and temperature at Newcomb............................ 


10. 


Duration curve of daily discharge for the Hudson River 
near Newcomb for the 1966 water year.................. 


11. 


Duration curves of daily flow for five streams in the 
Lake Champ I a i n a rea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


12. 


Duration curves of daily flow for five streams in the 
Upper Hudson area..................................... 


J 3 . 


Low-flow frequency curves for the Bouquet River at 
WilJsboro, based on 1924-63 climatic years............ 


14. 


High-flow frequency curves for the West Branch Ausable 
River near Lake Placid, based on 1920-64 water years.. 


J 5 . 
16. 


Map showing fJood-frequency regions..................... 


Graph showing frequency of annual floods, regions A 
and B................................................. 


17. 
l8. 


Map showing hydrologic areas............................ 


Graph showing variation of mean annual fJood with 
drainage area in hydroJogic areas J, 3, 5, 7, and 9... 


19. 


Draft-storage-frequency curves for the Hudson River at 
Newcomb, based on 1926-63 cJimatic years.............. 


20. 


Hydrograph showing maximum observed monthly water level 
and total recorded monthly precipitation for 
observation well 25-39 at Salem....................... 


21. 


Diagram of the area west of vertical section through 
wells 46-34, 12-52, and 56-04 near Glens Falls 
showing the placement of four wells for the removaJ 
of 500,000 gpd of water from an area 1 mile square.... 


22. 


Graph of particle-size analyses of sand samples from 
bore holes about 6 miles south of Schuylerville on 
the west side of the Hudson River..................... 


Section and graph showing cone of depression and 
drawdown around a pumped well......................... 


iv 


Page 


2l 


24 


25 


26 


29 


31 
34 


35 
36 


37 


40 


43 


56 


57 


59 



tllUSTRATtONS (Continued) 


Page 


Figure 24. Graph showing the theoretical relationship, at various 
pumping rates, between drawdown and distance from the 
pumped well for the sand aquifer in the Glens Fal ls 
a rea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 


25. General west-east vertical section showing the movement 
of ground water through the bedrock artesian aquifer 
of the northern Lake Champlain basin.................. 65 


26. Hydrologic map of the Plattsburgh area.................. 66 


27. Hydrogeologic map of the Crown Point Center area 
showing the surficial geology and contours on the 
buried bedrock surface............................... 7l 


28. Locations of wells, springs, and test wells in the 
vicinity of Crown Point Center....................... 72 


29. Hydrogeologic section through test wells 48-48, 47-45, 
47-44.2, and 46-42 which are shown in figure 28...... 73 


30. Maps showing areal variations of selected chemical 
constituents of surface waters......... ......... ..... 78 


31. Maps showing areal variations of selected chemical 
constituents of ground waters........................ 80 


v 



TABLES 


Page 


Table I. Facts about the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region - 1967... 4 


2. Geologic units in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region 
and their water-bearing properties........................ 8 


3. Gaging stations used to define regional flood-frequency 
relations in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region....... 33 


4. Source or cause and significance of dissolved mineral 
constituents and properties of water...................... 82 


5. Recommended maximum concentrations of major chemical 
constituents of water for industrial, domestic, and 
a g r i cu 1 t u ra 1 use s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 


6. Ranges of concentrations of major chemical constituents of 
surface and ground waters of the Lake Champlain-Upper 
Hudson region............................................. 84 


APPENDICES 


Page 


Appendix 1. Compilation of streamflow characteristics at long-term 
gaging stations in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson 
re g ion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 


2. Data summary for short-term gaging stations and partial- 
record sites in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region.. 94 


3. Discharge measurements made at miscellaneous sites in 
the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region.................. 103 


4. Records of selected wells in the Lake Champlain-Upper 
Hud son reg i on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 08 


5. Records of selected perennial springs in the Lake 
Champlain-Upper Hudson region................ ..... ...... l23 


6. Logs of selected wells and test holes in the Lake 
Champlain-Upper Hudson region........ ..... .............. 124 


7. Chemical analyses of surface water in the Lake 
Champlain-Upper Hudson region............ ........ ....... 129 


8. Chemical analyses of ground waters in the Lake 
Champlain-Upper Hudson region... ................ ........ 148 


vi 



WATER RESOURCES OF THE 
CHAMPLAIN - UPPER HUDSON BASINS 
IN NEW YORK STATE 


by 


G. L. Giese and W. A. Hobba , Jr. 


ABSTRACT 


This report describes the surface- and ground-water resources of the 
Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region -- a 6, 108-square mile area in north- 
eastern New York State. The eastern border of the area, where most of the 
region's 240,000 people 1 ive, is formed by the 135-mile length of the 
Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson valley. The area west of the valley 1 ies in 
rugged Adirondack Mountains, and a small section east of the valley 
1 ies in the less rugged Taconic Mountains. The region is underlain by 
crystal 1 ine rocks throughout, but they are at or near the surface only 
in the Adirondack highlands. In other places sedimentary rocks or 
unconsolidated deposits overlie the crystal1 ine rocks. 


The region is water rich, having an average yearly precipitation of 
38 inches. Major rivers include the Saranac, Ausable, Bouquet, Schroon, 
Sacandaga, and Hudson Rivers. Runoff in streams averages about 1.8 cfsm 
(cubic feet per second per square mile) but ranges from less than 1.0 to 
more than 2.0 cfsm depending on location. 


The valley-fill deposit of the Glens Falls area is the largest 
ground water aquifer in the study area. Yields from individual wells in 
this area average 67 gpm (gallons per minute) but are as much as 400 gpm 
from properly constructed wells. The bedrock is most productive where it 
constitutes an artesian system in the Plattsburgh area. Wells in this 
system yield an average of 35 gpm and may yield as much as 200 gpm. 


The chemical qual ity of the waters of the Lake Champlain-Upper 
Hudson region generally is good or excellent. Dissolved solids content, 
even of the ground waters, rarely exceeds 500 ppm (parts per million). 
In large sections of the Adirondack Mountains underlain by crystalline 
rocks, dissolved sol ids content of the ground waters is less than 100 ppm. 
The amount of dissolved material in surface waters is even less. In 
spite of the overall good qual ity of the waters of the region, high 
hardness and alkalinity are problems sometimes found in the eastern and 
northern parts of the study area. 


- 1 - 



INTRODUCTION 


The study area -- the New York part of the Lake Champlain basin and the 
Upper Hudson River basin -- covers 6,108 square miles in the state's north- 
eastern corner (fig. 1). The two basins have much in common in climate, 
natural resources, topography, population, and industry (table I) and may 
be considered a single geographic region. Much of this area lies within 
the Lake Champlain-Lake George planning region, served by the Lake 
Champlain-Lake George Regional Planning Board. 


Although large parts of both basins lie in the Adirondack State Park 
and population and industry have remained relatively stable in most areas 
since the 1930 1 s, it is expected that the completion of new roads 
(notably the now-completed Adirondack Northway, Interstate Route 87) 
wil I attract people and industry from metropol itan areas to the south. 
This, together with the ever-increasing numbers of vacationers and 
tourists who visit the area each year to enjoy its natural beauty and 
participate in winter and summer sports, insures an accelerated growth 
for the region in the years ahead. 


To be prepared for this growth, many interrelated facets of regional 
development must be evaluated and planned for, including transportation, 
land use, economic potential, education, recreation, and natural resources. 
One of the primary considerations in planning for future development of 
the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region will be its water resources - where 
the water is, how much is available, and what is its quality. The U.S. 
Geological Survey water-resources monitoring network, shown in figure 1, 
is a principal foundation upon which these future water decisions wi 11 be 
based. 


Specifically, and with respect to ground water, this report discusses, 
with the aid of geologic maps and figures, the occurrence and availabi 1 ity 
of ground water in the region. Surface-water sections of this report 
describe streamflow characteristics at high, low, and medium flows. 
Areal variations of chemical quality of the waters in the Lake Champlain- 
Upper Hudson region are shown and water-qual ity problems are discussed. 
Although written primarily for planners, this report contains much 
information useful to individuals or organizations wishing to develop 
water suppl ies, or make other use of available water resources. 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 


This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation 
with the New York State Water Resources Commission. The investigation was 
begun under the direction of Ralph C. Heath, former District Hydrologist, 
and completed under tn
 direction of Garald G. Parker, District Hydrologist. 


- 2 - 



74° 


EXPLANATION 


45° 


. 
Active gaging station or lake gage 
6 
Discontinued gaging station 
. 
Acti ve observation well 
o 
Discontinued observation well 
. 
Active qualit!l-of-water data 
collecti on si te 
V 
Discontinued quali t!l-of-water data 
collection site 


Basin boundar!l 


44° 


43° 


o 


10 


20 


30 MI LES 


43° 


74° 


Figure 1 .--Map of the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region 
showing data site locations. 


- 3 - 



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The authors performed much of the field work and interpretation of 
data, but many others gave valuable assistance. Special credit is due to 
the contributions of Ronald R. Shields, hydrologist, U.S. Geological Survey, 
who prepared the streamflow map of plate 2 and assisted in the interpre- 
tation of the water-qual ity data to describe areal variations; to Gordon 
Connally, State University of New York, Charles S. Denny, U.S. Geological 
Survey, and Donald W. Fisher, New York State paleontologist, for their con- 
tributions on the surficial and bedrock geology of the study area; and to 
the many well drillers who gave so freely of their time and information. 


PHYSICAL SETTING 


The study area 1 ies in the northeastern corner of New York State and 
includes the New York portion of the Hudson River basin upstream from, and 
including, the Battenki 1 1 drainaqe area, and the New York portion of the area 
draining into Lake Champlain. It encompasses one lowland and two highlands: 
the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson valley, a large part of the Adirondack 
Mountains, and a small part of the Taconic Mountains. The eastern border 
of the area is mainly the long, narrow, north-south-trending Lake 
Champlain - Upper Hudson valley. The floor of this valley, the lowest 
part of the study area, 1 ies between lOO and 500 feet above sea level. 
The val ley is approximately 135 mi les long, and its floor is about 
l2 miles wide at the northern and southern ends, but in some places along 
Lake Champlain the mountains extend to the Lake's edge. The area west of 
the val ley lies in the rugged Adirondack Mountains, and a small section 
east of the valley 1 ies in the less rugged Taconic Mountains. 


The loftiest peaks in the state are located in the Adironack 
Mountains on or near the drainage divide between the Lake Champlain and 
Upper Hudson basins. Of these, Mount Marcy, rising to an elevation of 
5 , 344 fee t, i 5 the h i g h est. 0 the r mo u n t a ins on 0 r n ear the d i v ide 
commonly rise to elevations over 4,600 feet. North and south of this 
divide the mountains are smaller and 51 ightly less rugged. The narrow 
intervening valleys also are broader, but few val ley bottoms are more 
than a mi le wide. The Taconic Mountains within the study area are lower, 
rounded mountains, generally less than 1,500 feet in elevation, but some 
rise to about 2,000 feet. The valleys are quite narrow, but the valley 
walls are usually less steep than those of the Adirondack area. 


The study area is underlain by consol idated rocks and unconsol idated 
deposits. The consolidated rocks include: (1) crystalline rocks, (2) 
sedimentary rocks, and (3) rocks of the Taconic sequence as shown in 
figure 2. 


The crystalline rocks underl ie all of the study area, but they are at 
or near the surface only in the Adirondack highlands. The sedimentary 
rocks consist of sandstones, carbonate rocks, and shales and are found 
mainly along the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson lowland. However, some small 
outl iers remain along fault-formed valleys in the Upper Hudson ba
in, and 
sandstone caps some higher hi lIs in the northern part of the Lake Champlain 
basin. The rocks of the Taconic sequence are the slightly metamorphosed 
sedimentary rocks forming the Taconic Mountains. 


- 5 - 



EXPLANA TION 


45 0 


I I 



 


Shales 


Carbonates 


Ta 1

.
,,

o
r nce 
.,...... . 
.......... 


Sandstones 
I 


Crystalline rocks 


Geologic contact 


44- 


43 0 


74 0 


44 0 


o 


43 0 


20 


10 


30 MilES 


74 0 


Figure 2.--Generalized bedrock geologic map. 
(Adapted from Fisher and others 1962) 


- 6 - 



In many places the consol idated rocks are buried by the following 
unconsolidated deposits: (1) glacial till" (2) sand and gravel, (3) sand, 
and (4) si 1 t and clay as shown in plate 1. Glacial ti 11 is generally a 
poorly sorted mass of different size rock particles laid down beneath the 
advancing ice sheet or letdown by melting ice. The till, therefore, 
overl ies many of the consol idated rocks of the study area; the other 
unconsol idated deposits, which are stratified, better sorted, and generally 
thicker were laid down in flowing or standing melt water, and are confined 
mainly to the lower valley areas as seen in figure 3. The geologic units 
are further described in table 2. 



 
 '--- 



 

 
" r 
",,
I 


" I I , 
\ 


r 


., 


\ 
"- 
/ \ 
Bedrock \/ \ \ \ \ 
\ Silt 
\ / / \\// / \ 
/ \ 
/ I \ I "" I 


Figure 3.--Three-dimensional view of a typical valley showing the 
types and locations of unconsol idated deposits. 


The drainage system of the study area has been controlled largely by 
geologic factors. The main lines of drainage in the Lake Champlain basin 
begin in the mountains to the west and run along east or northeast trending 
faults toward Lake Champlain. The Saranac and Great Chazy Rivers are 


- 7 - 



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- 8 - 



possibly the only two main rivers that do not follow faults over much of 
their length. However, their channels follow the same general direction 
as the fault-controlled channels, and perhaps they have been developed 
along unknown faults or fracture zones which parallel faults. 


The main channels of the Upper Hudson basin, unl ike those of the 
Lake Champlain basin, are oriented in various directions. The main rivers 
begin in the mountains near the rim of the basin and usually flow in a 
northeast, southwest, south, or southeast di rectiono Thei r channel soften 
describe the odd patterns establ ished by the intersecting faults which 
they follow. Some of the smaller tributary stream channels also fol low 
faults, but more often they do not. Many have developed in topographic 
lows where overland sheet flow was funnelled into channels. causing 
turbulent flow and subsequent erosion. 


Numerous lakes and ponds, occupying both val ley and mountain 
positions, are found throughout the study area. Geologic factors determine 
the location and often the size of these water bodies. Most of the larger
 
deeper lakes are found in fault-formed valleys; others are located in 
deep, wide depressions along river channels. The smaller. shal lower lakes 
and ponds in the uplands are usually found in topographic lows or behind 
dams of glacial debris. 


Water stored in these lakes and ponds usually is released to local 
streams throughout the year. However, water in the smaller ponds having 
no apparent surface outlet is probably discharged by evaporation and 
underground leakage o 


WATER POTENTIAL AND WATER PROBLEMS 


The Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region is extremely fortunate from a 
water-supply standpoint. It is one of the most water-rich areas in a state 
know n for its p 1 en t i f u 1 wa t err e sou r c e s . I n add i t ion _' the de man d s for wa t e r 
for municipal, industrial, and rural use from the 240.000 people who live 
in the region have been very modest in relation to the total water avai 1- 
able, and these demands are 1 ikely to remain modest in the foreseeable 
futureo However, the avai labi 1 ity and qual ity of water is not everywhere 
equal, and water needs vary also from place to place and from time to timeo 
Because of this, water problems do exist, and although they are not on as 
large a .scale as those sometimes encountered in other parts of the United 
States, they are of major concern to those they affect. It is the purpose 
of this section of the report to outl ine both the favorable and unfavorable 
features of the water situation in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region. 


- 9 - 



WATER-ORIENTED RECREATION 


Water is by far the most important recreational resource of the region. 
Trout, small-mouth bass, large-mouth bass, northern pike, and many types of 
pan fish abound in the numerous lakes and streams of the region. The West 
Branch Ausable River, for example, is rated as the best trout stream in the 
State. The use of the waters of the region for fishing and boating is 
increasing at a faster rate than the population and will continue to do so 
in the foreseeable future. 


The continuing development of Lake George as a well-known vacation 
spot is an outstanding example of this type of growth. This growth will 
provide important economic benefits to the people of the area as facilities 
expand to meet the growing demands. In the Lake Champlain basin, reservoir 
sites, to be used at least partly for recreation, have been proposed on 
Halfway Creek, the Saranac River, and the West Branch Ausable River. 
Similar sites have been proposed in the Upper Hudson basin on the Hudson 
River, Trout Brook, and on the Batten Kill. Two existing major reservoirs, 
Great Sacandaga Lake (formerly Sacandaga Reservoir) and Indian Lake, bui It 
mainly to control flows in the Hudson River, now are also used extensively 
for recreation. 


WATER SUPPLY 


Municipal water suppl ies of the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region have 
proven more than adequate in the past, although during the 1961-65 drought, 
some of the smaller communities depending on ground water, such as 
Bloomingdale, have had to go to nearby surface-water suppl ies to meet their 
needs. In most areas, more than adequate water suppl ies are available 
against future needs. The fast-growing Plattsburgh area can depend on 
Lake Champlain for a practically limitless supply of water. Similarly, the 
Glens Falls area has available to it the Hudson River, as well as extensive 
water-bearing sand deposits. Generally, industry has more than adequate 
supplies of cooling and process water available, as most are located along 
the major watercourses. 


Individual wells for farms and private dwell ings, however, are 
inadequate in about 25 percent of the cases. This constitutes the most 
serious water-supply problem of the region and it is due largely to the 
poor water-bearing characteristics of the crystal line rocks which underl ie 
more than 80 percent of the study area. The inadequacy of some of these 
wells may be partially overcome by proper well development or by dynamiting 
to increase the number of fractures contributing water to the well. The 
information given in this report about the occurrence and availability of 
ground water in the region will be a valuable aid in the placement of 
future wells. 


- 10 - 



FLOODS 


Although floods occur on all streams from time to time, they have 
caused relatively 1 ittle damage in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region, 
principally because there are few people where the floods occur. Yet, 
there are some areas which have experienced damaging floods, and these 
deserve some discus
iono 


Ice-jam floods have occurred on the Great Chazy River at Champlain, 
causing $80
000 worth of damage in 1946 and $18,000 in 1947. Keene Valley 
and Au Sable Forks have experienced floods from the East Branch Ausable 
River and the Ausable River. respectively. Agricultural flooding and 
related bank erosion are recurring problems on the Mettawee River, as well 
as on some reaches of the Schroon River, but the bank-erosion problem has 
been remedied in some sections by placing slate riprap along the banks. 
Signi ficant urban flood damages occurred on the Mettawee River in the 
1930 l s especially at Whitehall and Granvi lle. Total damages on the 
Mettawee between 1925 and 1940 amounted to $537,350, according to a survey 
by the Corps of Engineers. Most of this damage, however, was either of a 
nonrecurring nature or else has since been remedied by levees or other 
protective works. Damaging floods have also occurred on the Batten Kill, 
notably at Greenwich. N. Yo In most flood-problem areas in the Lake 
Champlain-Upper Hudson region, however, there is so 1 ittle flood damage 
that protective measures have been found economically unjustifiable. 


In order to keep future flood problems at a minimum, it will be 
necessary to incorporate sound design into bridges or bui Idings to be 
bui It over or adjacent to flood plains of streams. This report provides 
information, in the form of regional flood-frequency relations, which 
will be useful in the placement of such structures. 


POWER DEVELOPMENT 


The present installed capacity of hydroelectric plants in the Lake 
Champlain-Upper Hudson region totals only about 200,000 kw (kilowatts). 
In the Lake Champlain basin, the Saranac River has the greatest installed 
capacity, amounting to about 34,000 kw, while the Upper Hudson basin has 
power developments total ing about 150,000 kw, largely from plants on the 
Sacandaga and Hudson Rivers. 


Although many streams in the region have steep gradients for much of 
their lengths, streamflow is highly variable and storage is therefore 
required to maintain high minimum power outputs. Unfortunately, there 
are few sites where a large amount of storage is avai lable, and most of 
these 1 ie in the Adirondack Park. There are still a few favorable sites 
where small hydroelectric stations may be developed and also a number of 
abandoned logging dams which might be reclaimed for the same purpose. 


- 11- 



NAVIGATION 


Water-borne transportation provided the impetus for the early develop- 
ment of industry and commerce in the region. Although now displaced in 
importance by rai I, air, and highway transportation, the tonnage shipped 
through the Champlain Canal has actually increased in recent years from 
550,000 tons in 1936 to l,420,000 tons in 1965. The manmade waterway 
connects the Hudson River at Fort Edward to Lake Champlain at Whitehall, 
providing a 12-foot draft for vessels. Ice forces the closing of the 
canal for about 4 months from December through March. In addition, 
traffic delays are sometimes caused by low water in the summer months. 


Pleasure cruising is becoming an increasingly important use of the 
Champlain Canal, and a great potential exists for additional recreational 
use and development. The canal is also a possible mechanism for regional 
water distribution. 


IRRIGATION 


Water used for irrigation in the region is insignificant at present, 
amounting to less than 1.0 mgd over the frost-free period. Almost all of 
the water used for this purpose comes from lakes, ponds, and streams. 
Generally, the water is sprayed onto the land such that rainfall plus 
irrigation totals I to 2 inches per week. Unless improved farming 
practices make it profitable or there is a change in the agricultural 
patterns of the region (dairy farming is now predominant), it is not likely 
that there wi 11 be a significant increase in irrigation in the near future. 
It is important to add, however, that if a large increase in water used 
for irrigation does occur, water-supply problems might fol low, because 
irrigation is a consumptive use of water. That is, most of the water 
removed is transpired by crops and is unavai lable for reuse. 


WATER QUALITY 


The chemical qual ity of the waters of the Lake Champlain-Upper 
Hudson region is good or excellent nearly everywhereo Hardness is some- 
times a problem in the eastern parts of the basin; however, with 
increased use of synthetic detergents, it is now much less of a problem 
than, say, 30 years ago. Other chemical qual ity problems which sometimes 
occur are discussed in the water-qual ity section of this report. 


Outside of the Plattsburgh and Glens Falls areas, stream pollution 
is 1 imited to a relatively few short reaches immediately downstream from 
sewage outfal Is and paper mi 11so At Glens Falls, the Hudson River 
receives a large dose of raw sewage, and dissolved oxygen content drops 
to zero in places. The Saranac River at Plattsburgh is moderately 
pol luted as are other smaller tributaries entering Lake Champlain. The 
water qual ity of lake Champlain itself, however, remains generally good. 
As the current New York State program for pure waters takes effect, the 
waters of the region wi II become less pol luted. Some communities already 


- 12 - 



have municipal ordinances protecting their watersheds from the dangers of 
po11ution. The entire Lake George watershed is protected in this manner and 
provides an outstanding example of what can be done to ensure pure waters. 


Pollution of ground-water suppl ies has likewise not been a serious 
problem in the past and probably wi II not be in the foreseeable future, 
provided adequate preventive measures are taken. 


- 13 - 



WATER IN THE LAKE CHAMPLAIN 
UPPER HUDSON REGION 


The continuous movement of water from the atmosphere to the earth 
and back to the atmosphere is called the hydrologic cycle. Essentially, 
the sun acts as a giant pump, providing the energy required for water to 
move in the hydrologic cycle. Water falls to the earth as precipitation 
in the form of rain, hai 1, sleet, or snow. From there it may return to 
the atmosphere through one of several paths. I t may evaporate directly 
from the surface of the earth where it fell, or it may run off in streams 
and rivers to lakes, or the ocean, and then be evaporated. Some of the 
precipitation enters the ground, of which a part is used by plants and 
the rest percolates down to the water table and then moves laterally 
through the ground toward streams and lakes where it discharges. Figure 
4 shows the yearly amounts of water involved in various phases of the 
hydrologic cycle for the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region as a whole. 


Figure 4.--The hydrologic cycle. 


The areal variations in the amounts of water involved in these 
various phases of the hydrologic cycle are of primary practical importance 
as concerns the water resources of the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson area. 
Figures 5, 6, and 7, adopted from Knox and Nordenson (1951), summarize 
average hydrologic conditions throughout the region and figure 8 shows 
areas where large amounts of ground water are present. 


- 14 - 



Most of New York State usually has abundant rainfall, and the Lake 
Champlain-Upper Hudson region is no exception, as may be seen from figure 
5, which shows average annual precipitation in the area. Rainfall ranges 
from less than 30 inches along the western shore of Lake Champlain to more 
than 50 inches in the mountainous regions. Precipitation averages 40 
inches yearly for the Upper Hudson area and 37 inches for the Lake 
Champlain area. This difference is believed due to the fact that a 
majority of storms come from the west, arrive at the Upper Hudson basin 
first, and are diminished in intensity by the time they pass over the 
Lake Champlain area. This is known as the "rain shadow" effect. 


A good rule of thumb in most places is that the greater the elevation 
of the land surface, the greater the average annual precipitation. When 
a mass of moist air encounters a mountain or rising terrain, it is forced 
to move upslope and over the obstacle. The rising air cools and condenses, 
and precipitation usually follows. 


Average annual water loss due to evaporation from various bodies of 
water as well as water transpired by plants is shown in figure 6. About 
40 percent of the total precipitation in the study area is lost to the 
atmosphere through these two processes -- together cal led evapotrans- 
pi ration. 


The difference between precipitation and water loss is termed water 
yield. Water yield from a basin includes ground-water underflow as well 
as surface-water runoff. Figure 7 shows average annual water-yield 
isopleths for the study area. As would be expected, the water-yield 
isopleths form a pattern quite similar to the precipitation isopleths. 


Figure 8 shows those areas where relatively large amounts (between 
50 and lOO gpm) of ground water are generally avai lable from properly 
developed wells. Most high-yielding areas are underlain by sand or sand 
and gravel aquifers located in valley bottoms or on gently sloping 
hillsides, except for one large high-yielding area around Plattsburgh in 
Clinton County where the water is pumped from relatively permeable 
sandstone and carbonate rocks. In addition to the areas shown in 
figure 8, there are many small areas in various parts of the region 
where individual wells may also yield between 50 and 100 gpm or more. 
These and other aspects of the ground-water resources are discussed in 
deta ill ater in the ground-water sect i on of th is report. 


- 15 - 



74 0 


45 0 


EXPLANA TION 


-50- 


Average annual precipitation 
Intervals: 2 inches for amounts 
less than 50 inches; 5 inches for . 
amounts of 50 inches or more 


---- .. ----- 


Basin boundary 


44. 


43 0 


o 


10 


20 


30 MilES 


74 0 


Figure 5.--Average annual precipitation. 


- 16 - 


45 0 


44 0 


43° 



44. 


74 0 


EXPLANATION 


45 0 


Basin boundary 


44 0 


43 0 


o 


10 


20 


30 MilES 


43 0 


74 0 


Figure 6.--Average annual lake evaporation and water loss. 


- 17 - 



74 0 


45 0 


EXPLANATION 


-30- 


Average annual water yield . 
Intervals: 2 inches for amounts 
 . 
less than 30 inches; 5 inches for 
amounts of 30 inches or more _ 
...--.- -'--.. 
Basin boundary 


44. 


44 0 


43 0 


30 MILES 


43 0 


o 


20 


10 


74 0 


Figure 7.--Average annual water yield. 


- 18 - 



44. 


74 0 


45 0 


EXPLANA TION 


Consolidated aquifers 


J. ..... .. 0 .
 
.......... 
.......... 
. . . . . . . . . 
Unconsolidated aquifers 


44 0 


43 0 


o 


10 


20 


30 MilES 


43 0 


74 0 


Figure 8.--Major areas where large amounts (between 50 and 100 gpm) of ground 
water are generally available for development from wells. 


- 19 - 



STREAMFLOW 


CHARACTERISTICS 


The preceding di scussion deal t primari ly wi th Ilaverage'l hydrologic 
conditions existing over relatively long periods of time. Such information 
as average annual precipitation and runoff provides a useful first 
indication of the availabi 1 ity of water in a given area and facil itates 
gross comparisons with other areas for which these statistics are known. 


More often, however, it is the departures from these average 
conditions which most concern water managers. Droughts, floods, water 
shortages, and water pollution are problems which are either caused or 
accentuated by the extreme rather than the average hydrologic conditions. 
The following discussions deal, in particular, with variations in stream- 
flow within the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region and present streamflow 
characteristics useful to water managers in dealing with these problems. 


VARIABILITY OF STREAMFLOW 


Streamflow varies in two ways. It varies from time to time at a given 
location and it varies also from location to location. The variations with 
time at a given location are due to changes in the weather; that is, they 
are due to variations in precipitation intensity and duration, air tempera- 
ture, relative humidity, and other less significant meteorological factors. 
Variations in streamflow with location are due largely to differences in 
cl imate, topography, and geology from place to place and also to 
differences in the weather from place to place. 


Further discussion of the variability of streamflow with respect 
to time and place can be centered conveniently around discussions of the 
streamflow hydrograph (for time variations) and the flow-duration curve 
(for place variations). 


It is instructive to view a hydrograph and observe how streamflow 
varies with two of the most important meteorological variables -- 
precipitation and air temperature. Figure 9 shows a typical streamflow 
hydrograph for the Hudson River near Newcomb, N. Y. for the 1966 water 
year. Above it are plots of daily maximum and minimum air temperatures 
and daily precipitation taken from U.s. Weather Bureau records. The 
ups and downs of the streamflow hydrograph of figure 9 may be divided 
into two categories -- short-term fluctuations due to variations in the 
weather from day to day, and, superimposed on these short-term 
fluctuations, long-term trends due to changes in the seasons. 


Consider first the short-term fluctuations caused, in part, by the 
variations in precipitation and temperature. It is readily apparent from 
figure 9 that precipitation plays a large part in day-to-day variations 
in streamflow. When a significant amount of precipitation falls, stream- 
flow rises rapidly, reaches a peak, falls rapidly at first, and is followed 
by a more or less gradual decrease in flow to a point where the total 
flow is derived from ground-water sources. 


- 20 - 



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- 21 - 


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A closer inspection of figure 9 shows that equal amounts of preCIpI- 
tation during given 24-hour periods do not necessari ly produce peak 
discharges of equal magnitude. For instance, an inch and a half of rain 
on November 28, 1965 was followed by a daily discharge of 725 cfs on 
November 29, whi le only 0.04 inches of rain on April 25, 1966 was 
followed by the second highest daily discharge of the water year -_ 
2,270 cfs on April 25. Air temperature records help to explain this 
seeming paradox. From November 28 to December 2, air temperatures 
averaged below freezing. In all probabil ity, a part of the November 28 
precipitation lay on the ground in the form of snow or ice and fai led to 
produce immediate overland runoff. The discharge on April 25, 1966, on 
the other hand, was due largely to a combination of rain and snowmelt. 
Many of the other dai Iy ups and downs in the streamflow hydrograph can be 
partly explained in a similar manner. More complete explanations would 
involve consideration of wind, relative humidities, percentage of cloud 
cover, lake and ground-water storage, and the amount of transpiration from 
plants. 


Long-term variations in streamflow are brought about by predictable 
seasonal changes in the weather as distinguished from mere day-to-day 
chance variations. The principal variable which undergoes a seasonal 
change is air temperature. These seasonal temperature changes are, in 
turn, responsible for bringing on and ending the growing season, during 
which time trees and plants take in and transpire large amounts of water. 


The seasonal variations of the hydrograph in figure 9 are similar to 
all streams in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson area and the humid north- 
eastern United States in general. When the growing season ends with the 
coming of the first kil I ing frost, usually in the beginning of October, 
the use of water by plants lessens drastically and streamflow increases 
as more water becomes avai lable. During the winter months, when 
freezing temperatures prevail, a large part of the precipitation that 
falls accumulates on the ground as snow and is temporarily unavai lable 
for streamflow. Consequently, stream discharges decrease and flow is 
composed largely of ground-water contributions. When temperatures rise 
above freezing in the spring of the year, the combination of rain and 
snowmelt often produces the highest discharges of the year. When the 
growing season begins (usually about the middle of May), plants and trees 
start to consume much of the precipitation otherwise available for 
streamflow. Ground-water storage, which has been replenished during the 
nongrowing season, again makes up most of the streamflow. As ground- 
water storage is depleted through the summer months, streamflow decreases 
until the growing season ends. Then, water from precipitation again 
becomes avai lable to increase streamflow and replenish ground-water 
storage. Thus, the yearly cycle is completed. 


In addition to these within-year variations just discussed, we 
observe that streamflow varies from year to year. One year we may 
experience unusually large floods and the next year much smaller ones, 
or we may experience in 1 year a dai ly discharge lower than any in the 


- 22 - 



previous 50 years and the next year the minimum daily discharge may be 
much larger. Years of drought alernate between years of water-abundance 
but no one can yet predict in what years they will occur. (Later 
discussions concerning low flows, high flows, and floods treat these 
year-to-year variations from a statistical standpoint.) 


Hydrographs, then, are a way of showing the effects on streamflow of 
day-to-day and seasonal changes in the weather. Often, however, it is 
desirable to study the effects on streamflow of factors such as climate, 
topography, and geology, which do not vary appreciably with time, but 
which differ from place to place. If a comparison is made of the flow 
hydrographs for two geologically dissimilar areas, it generally is found 
that the effects of geology on streamflow are obscured by the ups and 
downs caused by meteorological factors. A graph called a flow-duration 
curve helps to overcome this difficulty. 


Figure 9 was analyzed to determine the percent of time specified 
discharges were equaled or exceeded during the 1966 water year. The 
results were plotted on lognormal-probability paper and are shown as the 
flow-duration curve in figure 10. As an example of how to read the curve, 
the daily flow of the Hudson River near Newcomb was at least 84 cfs 90 
percent of the time during the 1966 water year. 


In common with the flow hydrograph, the flow-duration curve 
integrates the effects of climate, topography, and geology. However, 
the general characteristics of high, medium, and low flow may be studied 
more easily from a flow-duration curve, and some types of comparisons 
between different streams are accomplished more readily. 


Searcy (1959) discusses flow-duration curves at length with regard 
to their hydrologic significance and applications. With respect to shape, 
Searcy says: "A curve with a steep slope throughout denotes a highly 
variable stream whose flow is largely from direct runoff, whereas a curve 
with a flat slope reveals the presence of surface- or ground-water 
storage, which tends to equalize the flow. The slope of the lower end 
of the duration curve shows the characteristics of the perennial storage 
in the drainage basin; a flat slope at the lower end indicates a large 
amount of storage, and a steep slope indicates a negl igible amount. 
Streams whose high flows come largely from snowmelt tend to have a flat 
slope at the upper end. The same is true for streams with large flood- 
plain storage or those that drain swamp areas." (Searcy, 1959, p. 22.) 


The value of flow-duration curves for comparative purposes or for 
acquiring a general idea of streamflow characteristics is readily 
apparent from the preceding discussions. As examples, flow-duration 
curves have been prepared for 10 sites in the Lake Champlain-Upper 
Hudson region as shown in figures 11 and 12. Discharges are shown in 
terms of cfs per square mile to facilitate comparison of the flow 
characteristics of different basins. 


- 23 - 



10.00 


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Percent of time discharge equaled or exceeded that shown 


Figure 10.--Duration curve of daily discharge for the Hudson River 
near Newcomb for the 1966 water year. 


It is worthwhile to look at these curves briefly, to demonstrate their 
value for comparative purposes. We notice that the duration curves have a 
tendency to "fan out" at the high and low ends, and we have learned from 
previous discussion that this should be revealing of differences in storage 
characteristics between different basins. Station 1-3190, the East Branch 
Sacandaga River at Griffin, shows a particularly steep slope ar the low end 
as compared to other streams in the Upper Hudson area and this indicates a 
relative lack of surface- and/or ground-water storage. Subsequent 
inspection of geologic and topographic maps bears this out. While most 
other areas in the Upper Hudson have at least a fair amount of storage in 
the form of lakes or, in rarer instances, significant sand or sand and 
gravel aquifers, the East Branch Sacandaga River has neither of these to 
a marked degree. On the other hand, the Batten Kill drainage contains 
fairly extensive saturated sand and sand and gravel deposits, and flow 
contributions from these "hold Up" the stream discharges during the 
summer months. We see this effect in the way the duration curve for the 
Batten Kill at Battenville (1-3295) h01ds up at the higher duration points 
as compared to many other streams in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region. 
These differences would not have been readily apparent from a comparison of 
flow hydrographs. 


- 24 - 



Q) 
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Station Number and Name .......
I...J. \ 
Great Chazy River at Perry Mills, N. Y. 

 
West Branch Ausable River near Lake Placid, No Y. I 

 
Black Brook at BI ack Brook, N. Y 0 r
 '" ""'" 
East Branch Ausable River at Au Sable Forks, No Y. , 
Bouquet River at Willsboro, N. Y. , 


2.- 



 
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0.08- ____ 


4-2715 
4-2740 
4-2745 
4-2750 
4-2765 


0.0... 


0.0. 
0.01 o.os 001 0.2 o.a I 2 


I 10 20 30 40 10 60 70 80 90 95 .... ft.. ..0. Ho' .,"'. 


Percent of time discharge equaled or exceeded that shown 


Figure ll.--Duration curves of daily flow for five streams in the 
Lake Champlain area. 


Notice, from figures 11 and 12, the manner in which the duration curves 
for stations 4-2740, 4-2745, and 1-3170 take a sudden dip at the low end of 
the curve. This is a highly unusual circumstance for a naturally flowing 
stream which does not go dry or nearly dry for a part of the year, and the 
effects of regulation are apparent here. For example, the sharp dip for 
station 4-2740, the West Branch Ausable River near Lake Placid, is a 
reflection of closing the gates in a logging dam upstream which causes a 
sharp drop in flow. These operations were discontinued about 1927 and, 
although not included here, a duration curve prepared from streamflow data 
collected after this date does not show this sharp dip at the lower end. 


- 25 - 



10 


0 
" 

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. I' 

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Station Number and Name T "i'.." '" 
:--:::, 
s- 1-3120 Hudson River at Newcomb, N. Y. 
1-3170 Schroon River at Riverbank, N. Yo " '\ 
" 
-- 1-3185 Hudson River at Hadley, N. Y. ...."" 
------ 1-3190 East Branch Sacandaga River at Griffin, N. Yo 
.......... 1-3295 Batten Kill at Battenville, N. Y. " 
i'.. 
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0.0 


0.0 
0.01 0.050.10.2 0.5 I 2 


5 10 20 30 40 50 10 TO 80 90 95 9. 99 9905 990899.9 99.99 


Percent of time discharge equaled or exceeded that shown 


Figure 12.--Duration curves of daily flow for five streams in the 
Upper Hudson area. 


There are similar explanations for the dips in the duration curves for 
stations 4-2745 and 1-3170. Again, these effects, which are easily 
discernible from the duration curves, would have required a more time- 
consuming study to establish from flow hydrographs. 


For specific purposes involving quantitative determinations of flow 
characteristics, however, the use of flow-duration curves is discouraged. 
In recent years, other ways of expressing streamf10w characteristics have 
been deve10ped which, for their purposes, are more useful than flow- 
duration curves. Some of these newer ways are presented in succeeding 
sections of this report and include low- and high-flow frequency curves, 
draft-storage-frequency relations, and regional flood-frequency relations. 


- 26 - 



No discussion of the variability of streamflow in the Lake Champlain- 
Upper Hudson region would be complete without a discussion of manls 
influence on streamflow. It would be difficult to find a single stream 
in the area completely unaffected by man1s works. For instance, the out- 
flows from the Sacandaga Reservoir and Indian Lake, with a combined 
storage capacity of about 286 bi 11ion gallons, are completely regulated. 
Releases are controlled so as to keep the flow of the Hudson River down- 
stream from Hadley at the highest possible minimum level, generally about 
3,000 cfs. Water stored in the spring is released in the summer and early 
fall to augment the low natural flows at that time of the year. 


In addition, numerous powerplants, paper companies, and other 
industries regulate the flow on most of the major streams in the region 
in a manner which causes diurnal fluctuations in streamflow. That is, 
water stored during one part of the day is released during a later part 
of the day. Generally, this type of regulation does not have a major 
effect on the average discharge for a given day, but the flow at any 
particular time may be greatly different from what it otherwise would 
have been. The lower part of the Saranac River is controlled in this 
manner at many points and provides a typical example of this type of 
regulation. Powerplants at High Falls, Cadyville, Indian Rapids, 
Frankl in Falls, Union Falls, and Plattsburgh, among other sites, 
contribute to considerable diurnal and even day-to-day fluctuations 
in streamflow. Other major rivers in the study area subject to diurnal 
fluctuations include the Ausable River, the Bouquet River, the Hudson 
River, and the Batten Kill. 


The reasons for stream regulation in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson 
region have been shifting from economic to recreational. Many small 
hydroelectric installations have been abandoned as cheaper sources of 
power have been made available. Meanwhi le, more and more lake levels are 
being controlled for recreation. The typical means of regulation is the 
installation of flashboards (or some other control device) at a lake 
outlet in late spring after the heavy seasonal runoffs, and their removal 
sometime in the fall of the year. Streamflow is significantly altered 
for only a few days following the installation or removal of the 
flashboards. 


So far as is known, there has never been a comprehensive survey of 
streamflow regulation within the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region. It. 
is probable that many of the hundreds of lakes and streams in the region 
are regulated at unknown places (unknown to public officials) and in 
unknown manners. The definition of the places and patterns of stream- 
flow regulation should be made a part of future regional water-resources 
planning studies in the area. 


STREAMFLOW AT THE 90-PERCENT DURATION POINT 


Knowledge of the low-flow characteristics of a stream is useful in 
many studies involving, for example, water supply, reservoir design, water 
pollution, and maintenance of aquatic 1 ife. This report discusses low 


- 27 - 



flows from several aspects. In addition to the previously discussed flow- 
duration data, information is given about low-flow frequency and storage 
requirements for low flow. However, these data apply only to specific 
sites where sufficient discharge data are available to define the various 
low-flow characteristics. In order to provide the user with a general 
picture of low flows, a streamflow map, plate 2, was prepared. This 
plate shows estimated flow ranges at the 90-percent duration point for 
selected streams, and helps fill the demand for more low-flow information 
at ungaged sites. In addition to providing a general picture of low-flow 
conditions in the study area, this information wi 11 also prove useful in 
the prel iminary stages of particular studies which require only a first 
approximation of the lesser amounts of available streamflow. 


The rel iability of the streamflow map is highly variable from place 
to place. In some remote areas, notably the central Adirondacks, few 
discharge measurements and even fewer measurement sites were available to 
corroborate the flow estimates. Fortunately, these are the areas where 
the need for flow information is the least. In areas more accessible and 
more densely populated, more measurements generally were avai lable with 
which to make flow estimates. 


Because of this varying rel iabi 1 ity, it would be impossible to state 
the accuracy of flow estimates for all locations, and because of the 
uncertainties involved, only ranges are given for the 90-percent duration 
flow. Generally, the rel iability of figures for a site in question 
depends on the concentration of and type of flow data available at or in 
the vicinity of that site. With respect to rel iability four types or 
classes of streamflow data were recognized. The class of data available 
for each collection site is shown in plate 2 to aid the user in judging 
rel iabi lity. The most reliable class of data was obtained at gaging 
stations where continuous records of discharge were available for varying 
lengths of time. The next class of data was obtained at partial-record 
sites where five or more measurements were available. The third class of 
data was obtained from miscellaneous sites where less than five measure- 
ments were available. Finally, the fourth class comes from on-site flow 
estimated made by trained hydrologists. 


For specific purposes that may involve water supply, pollution, fish 
culture, etc., additional measurements generally are necessary to define 
the low-flow characteristics at the individual site or sites of interest. 
Appendices 1, 2, and 3 list discharge data already available at gaging 
stations, partial-record sites, and miscellaneous sites in the study 
area through October 1966. In spite of its shortcomings, the streamflow 
map of plate 2 represents a start towards regionalization of low-flow 
characteristics for the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region. As more is 
learned about the study area, it will become practical to predict flow 
characteristics for any location with a much greater degree of accuracy 
than is now possible. 


- 28 - 



LOW - FLOW FREQUENCY 


While streamflow at the 90-percent duration point provides a useful 
index to low flows, more information is usually required for the design of 
water-supply and waste-disposal facilities. Often, it is important to 
know not only that a certain discharge is equaled or exceeded 90-percent 
of the time, but also how often we expect a given flow level to recur and 
for how long this flow level will persist. A man could go without water 
for 36 days out of a year, but certainly not 36 days in a row. Low-flow 
frequency curves help to portray both frequency and duration of occurrence 
of streamflow events. To do this, the average flow over a selected time 
interval is taken as the representative flow for that period of time and 
streamflow records are analyzed to determine how often, for the selected 
time interval, discharges averaged equal to or less than a given magnitude. 


Figure 13 shows a typical set of low-flow frequency curves developed 
for the Bouquet River at Willsboro. One reads, for example, that the 
minimum average 7 consecutive-day discharge to be expected once in 
10 years, on the average, is about 27 cfs or less. I n other words, we 
expect that once in an average time interval of lO years there will be 
some 7 consecutive-day period for which the daily discharges will average 
27 cfs or less. 


200 


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 30- d 
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o 


1.1 1.2 I.S 1.4 1.5 


3 


" 5 6 7 8 9 10 


20 


30 40 50 


10(1 


Percent of time discharge equaled or exceeded that shown 


Figure 13.--Low-flow frequency curves for the Bouquet River at 
Wil1sboro, based on 1924-63 climatic years. 


Appendices 1 and 2 summarize low-flow frequency characteristics at 
a number of sites in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region. As is the 
case in most areas of hydrology, the extreme events are known to the 
least amount of accuracy. Thus, for regular gaging stations, no 10w- 
flow frequency characteristics are shown for an event greater than the 
30-year event, whereas for the short-term gaging stations and partial- 
record sites where only five or more base flow measurements are avail- 
able, estimates are made only for the 7-day, 10-year event. 


- 29 - 



Variations in geology or other hydrologic conditions from place to 
place sometimes cause large percentage changes in streamflow, especially 
at low discharges from small drainage areas. A stream may lose water 
through relatively permeable beds in one location, only to have this same 
water reappear a short distance downstream. These variations usually 
cannot be predicted with any great rel iabil ity because there is not 
enough detailed geologic and hydrologic information covering specific 
small areas. So long as these gaps in knowledge exist, the transfer 
value of low-flow data collected at specific sites is 1 imited. That is, 
we cannot with confidence infer low-flow characteristics at one site from 
low-flow data collected exclusively at another site. Thus, it is usually 
advisable to obtain at least some low-flow information at the site or 
sites of interest. 


These low-flow frequency data may be used, for example, for estimating 
how often a water-supply shortage of a given magnitude will occur. If low- 
flow frequency data are avai lable for streams feeding a village water 
supply, the magnitude and frequency of water shortages may be estimated. 
For pollution studies, low-flow frequency data provide a means of calcu- 
lating pollution loads in streams and aid in determining the consequences 
to fish and other aquatic life. These and other uses make low-flow 
frequency curves a valuable tool in hydrology. 


HIGH-FLOW FREQUENCY 


Maximum instantaneous peak discharges principally determine the extent 
and depth of flooding and, therefore, the amount of possible flood damage. 
The design of structures over or near rivers subject to flooding is. based 
on knowledge of these maximums. However, often it is desired to prevent 
the flood in the first place by providing detention storage during high 
flows, and peak discharges alone do not provide sufficient information to 
design such storage facilities. An indication of the total volume of water 
associated with the high-flow period is required. High-flow frequency 
information helps to fill this need. In addition to flood control, this 
type of information is often used in water-supply studies as a means of 
indicating the percent chance of a reservoir filling or reaching a certain 
level in a given year. 


Figure 14 shows a series of high-flow frequency curves developed for 
the West Branch Ausable River near Lake Placid. These curves are the 
complement of the low-flow frequency curves discussed in the previous 
section, and are read in a simi lar way. For example, we may read that 
the highest 30 consecutive-day mean discharge to be expected in an average 
recurrence interval of 9 years is at least 1,000 cfs. 


High-flow frequency tables for most long-term gaging stations in the 
Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region are shown in Appendix 1 and include 
high-flow data for l, 7, 30, and 90 consecutive-day periods for recurrence 
intervals up to 20 years. Usually, it is meaningless to talk about high- 
flow periods in excess of 90 days. A high-flow period of 150 days, for 
example, wi 11 probably include many days of less than the mean annual flow 
and may even include several days of notably low flows. 


- 30 - 



'0. 


&0 


--- 
- v 
,-- 
 
1-day -- 
 
- 
 
- 
----- 
 
7-day ---- 
I I I I 
-- 
0-- I 30-day 
- 

 
90-day 
 
....... 
--- 
too 
10.. 


z 


s 


4 


!5 & 71910 
Recurrence interval, in years 


20 


SO 40 10 


"C 
C 
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Q) 
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a. 
... 
Q) 
Q) 

 
() 
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C 


a) 

 
it; 
L; 
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Figure 14.--High-flow frequency curves for the West Branch Ausable 
River near Lake Placid, based on 1920-64 water year. 


High-flow frequency data, then, portray several aspects of high 
streamflow. They give an indication of magnitude, duration, and recurrence 
interval of high flows. The applications of these types of data to flood 
control and water supply have been mentioned. Another important aspect 
of high streamflow is peak discharge, which is taken up in the next section 
entitled, "Regional Flood Frequency." 


REGIONAL FLOOD FREQUENCY 


In the design of dams, highways, bridges, or any other structures over 
or adjacent to a stream, consideration should be given to the probability 
of flood damage. For example, if a bridge is designed to just barely pass 
a 10-year flood (a flood which is expected to be equaled or exceeded in 
magnitude once every 10 years, on the average), flood damage may be high 
and maintenance expensive. The probability of flood damage may be 
decreased by designing the bridge to carry a 1,000-year flood, but initial 


- 31 - 



costs might be prohibitively high and chances are the bridge would be 
obsolete long before a damaging flood would occur. Optimum design most 
often 1 ies somewhere between these extremes. 


Regional flood relationships (based on streamflow records up to 1958) 
have been developed for New York State and reported by Robison (1961). (Much 
of the material in this section of the report is adapted from this 
publ ication.) Studies have shown that floods which have occurred since 
1958 have not significantly altered the relationships. However, on the 
basis of other hydrologic considerations, some of the flood relations 
describing the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region have been modified. 
The updated versions are presented in figures 15-18 and the reasons for 
changes are explained in the text. The following discussions describe 
development of these regional relations and how they may be appl ied in 
the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region to estimate the magnitude and 
frequency of floods at gaged or ungaged sites. 


ANALYSIS OF STREAMFLOW RECORDS 


For each gaging station in table 3 the maximum instantaneous discharge 
was determined for each water year of the period of record. Each flood was 
assigned an order number m, such that for the highest flood, m = 1, for the 
second highest, m = 2, and so on. Recurrence intervals for each flood were 
computed by the formula T = n + 1 where T is in years, n is the number of 
years of record, and m is the 
rder number. Discharges were plotted 
against corresponding T values and a flood-frequency curve of best fit was 
drawn for each station. 


As a sample calculation, consider the maximum flood on a stream with 
50 years of record to be 10,000 cfs. The corresponding recurrence interval 
T is 50 + l or 51 years. This means we expect a flood of 10,000 cfs or 
greater to occur once in an average time interval of 51 years. It is 
important to note that two or more such floods might occur in a given 51- 
year period or none may occur in 100 years, but the average interval of 
time between floods of this magnitude or greater is expected to be 51 years. 


REGIONAL FLOOD-FREQUENCY CURVES 


By combining flood-frequency curves within homogeneous regions, two 
regional curves were found to be applicable within the Lake Champlain-Upper 
Hudson area. The regions and curves were designated A and B in figure 15 
and figure 16 and correspond in all respects to those given by Robison 
(1961). 


Region A comprises most of the study area. Flooding in this area is 
caused, almost without exception, by ice jams, snowmelt, and spring rains. 
The same causes produce floods in Region B but, in addition, hurricanes and 
coastal storms are responsible for some of the larger floods. 


- 32 - 



Table 3.--Gaging stations used to define regional flood-frequency 
relations in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region. 


Number 


1-3120 


1-3l35 


1-3140 


1-3l55 
1-3l85 


1-3l90 


1-3210 


1-3280 


1-3295 
4-2715 


4-2740 


4-2750 


4-2755 


4-2765 


Gaging station 
Hudson River near Newcomb 


Cedar River below Chain 
Lakes, near Indian Lake 


Hudson River at Gooley, 
n ear I n d i an Lake 


Hudson River at North Creek 


Hudson River at Hadley 


East Branch Sacandaga River 
at Griffin 


Sacandaga River near Hope 


Bond Creek at Dunham Basin 


Batten Ki 11 at Battenvi11e 


Great Chazy River at 
Pe r ry Mills 


West Branch Ausable River 
near Lake Placid 


East Branch Ausable River 
at Au Sable Forks 


Ausable River near 
Au Sable Forks 


Bouquet River at Wi 11sboro 


Drainage 
area 
(sq m i ) 
192 


150 


419 


792 


1 ,664 
1 14 


491 
14. 7 
394 
247 


116 


198 


448 


275 


Mean 
annual 
flood 
(cfs) 
4,210 


3,870 


9,300 


14,500 


2 1 ,400 


5,100 


14,200 


900 


6,700 


3,360 


3,950 


7,200 


10,900 


4,500 


Pe r i od 
of 
Record 


1925-58 
1930-58 


19l6-58 


1907-58 
1921-58 
1933-58 


1911-58 
1947-58 
1922-58 
1928-58 


1916-17; 
1919-58 
1924-58 


1910-58 


1904,1908; 
1923-58 


- 33 - 



Figure 1 
5.--Flo d 
o -frequenc y 
regions. 


- 34 - 



4 


I I I/{ 
Y * 
Z 
B
 
71 
- 

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 I -: TT
 1 I I I 
I I I I I I I I 
I I T I I I I I I T I I I I I I I 


1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 


2 


3 


4 5 6 7 8 9 10 


20 


30 40 50 


100 


"8 3 

 


ro 
::J 
c: 
c: 
ro 
c: 2 
ro 
<1J 
E 
B 
o 

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o 
1.01 


Recurrence interval in years 


Figure 16.--Frequency of annual floods, regions A and B. 


HYDROLOGIC AREA CURVES 


The mean annual flood (defined as that flood having a recurrence 
interval of 2.33 years) is influenced by many factors including drainage 
area, land and stream slopes, air and water temperatures, channel storage, 
soi 1 depth, and lakes and swamps. Of these, drainage area has by far the 
most significant influence. By plotting drainage area against the mean 
annual flood for each station with sufficient record, 10 hydrologic areas 
were defined in New York State (Robison, 1961). Of these, areas 1, 3, 5, 
7, and 9 are represented in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region. These 
areas are shown in figure 17 and their corresponding curves in figure 18. 
On a per-square mile basis, smaller mean-annual floods occur in the Lake 
Champlain-Upper Hudson region than in many other parts of the State. 
This is bel ieved to be largely due to the storage effect in the study 
area of the numerous lakes, ponds, and swamps which attenuates flood 
pea ks. 


The hydrologic areas shown in figure 17 correspond to those given by 
Robison with the exception that the Hudson River basin upstream from 
Hadley and the Sacandaga River basin, formerly designated as hydrologic 
area 1, has been divided into two separate hydrologic areas, 5 and 9. 
Streamflow records show higher mean annual floods per square mile in the 
Sacandaga River basin than in the Hudson River basin upstream from 
Hadley. This difference is believed due to the fact that the Sacandaga 
River basin has fewer lakes, ponds, and swamps and a slightly higher 
average rainfall than does the Hudson River basin upstream from Hadley. 


DETERMINATION OF THE DESIGN FLOOD 


Before applying the regional flood relationships it is necessary to 
select an allowable recurrence interval. I f the type of structure or its 
location is such that flooding would cause loss of 1 ife or great financial 
loss, then the design would be for a flood which probably will never be 
exceeded. For most structures, however, the design will probably be for 


- 35 - 



74 0 


4l 


45 0 EX P LA N A T ION 


3 



 


Hydrologic area boundary 
and number 


----..
 


Basin boundary 


44 0 


43 0 


30 MilES 


43 0 


o 


10 


20 


74 0 


Figure 17.--Hydrologic areas. 


- 36 - 



0.2 


J 1 
I 

 
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5q - 
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Ci7bt 

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20 


50 


100 


200 


500 


1000 


2000 


5000 


10pOO 


100 


50 


20 


-c 
r::: 
o 

 10 


CD 
c. 
Q) 
J!? 
(.) 
:g 5 
(.) 
'0 
UI 
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r::: 
CI:I 
UI 
:::::J 
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'5 


.: 2 


-c- 
o 
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;: 


CI:I 
:::::J 
r::: 
r::: 
CI:I 
r::: 
CI:I 
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:?i 


0.5 


0.1 
10 


Drainage area, in square miles 


Figure 18.--Variation of mean annual flood with drainage area 
in hydrologic areas 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9. 


floods with a recurrence interval selected on the basis of economics. It 
is 1 ikely that most design floods wi 11 fall within the frequency range 
presented in this report. 


Once the recurrence interval of the design flood is selected, its 
magnitude may be determined by the following procedure: 


1. Determine the drainage area in square miles above the 
selected site. 


- 37 - 



2. From figure 17 determine the hydrologic area in which the site 
is located. 


3. Determine the mean annual flood for the site from the 
appropriate curve in figure 18. 


4. From figure l5 identify the flood-frequency region in which the 
site is located. 


5. Determine the ratio to mean annual flood for the selected 
recurrence interval from the appropriate curve in figure l6. 


6. Multiply the ratio to mean annual flood (step 5) by the mean 
annual flood (step 3) to obtain the design-flood magnitude. 


7. A complete flood-frequency curve for a specific site in the 
Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region may be obtained, if 
desired, by repeating steps 5 and 6 for various recurrence 
intervals. 


VALIDITY OF RESULTS 


General ly, a frequency curve developed by this method gives a better 
indication of the frequency of future floods at a site than a curve from 
streamflow records at the site alone, providing the hydrologic areas and 
flood-frequency regions used to develop the regional curves are truly 
homogeneous. If this condition is met, then any variations experienced 
between flood magnitudes in adjacent streams during a given period of time 
may be ascribed to chance. 


For example, consider two basins which are hydrologic repl icas of each 
other. Several higher intensity storms on one basin over a period of 
several years may produce different flood-frequency curves for each basin. 
However, we would expect these chance variations to average out over a long 
period of time and the flood-frequency curves to approximate each other. 


The method described by Robison has the advantage of tending to 
average out these chance variations. One disadvantage is, of course, that 
no two basins are exactly al ike and homogeneity can only be approximated. 


Flood
frequency relations presented here should not be extrapolated 
beyond the limits shown. Few data are now available for streams with 
drainage areas less than 10 square miles. Relatively short periods of 
streamflow record 1 imit the prediction of recurrence intervals to 50 years. 
In addition, extensive regulation precludes use of these curves on the 
Hudson River downstream from Hadley, the Sacandaga River at Stewarts 
Bridge near Hadley, Lake George Outlet downstream from Ticonderoga, and 
the Indian River downstream from Indian Lake. 


- 38 - 



In some instances, personal judgment is required to achieve best 
results. The Schroon River, for example, has more large lakes in its head- 
waters than do most other streams in hydrologic area 5. For this reason, 
mean annual floods are 1 ikely to be lower on the Schroon River than on 
other streams in hydrologic area 5. In this case it would probably be 
better to use actual station data from the Schroon River at Riverbank 
rather than the regional curves. When used with the proper cautions in 
mind, however, the regional flood-frequency relations presented here are 
a valuable aid in the design of structures subject to floods. 


WATER-SUPPLY STORAGE REQUIREMENTS 


Demands for water often are greater than minimum streamflow but can 
be met by providing reservoir storage. The analysis of storage require- 
ments for a specific project involves the consideration of streamflow 
characteristics and the geology and topography at the storage site, the 
pattern of withdrawal, the economic consequences of a temporary 
deficiency in water supply, the amount of evaporation from the reservoir, 
the reduction in capacity because of sedimentation, and the possible 
modification of the reservoir capacity to provide for flood storage or 
recreation. 


Obviously, it would be neither possible nor desirable to consider all 
these facets of development for all possible storage sites in the Lake 
Champlain-Upper Hudson region, especially in a limited study such as this. 
The purpose of this section of the report is to provide storage-require- 
ment information at selected sites based on streamflow data alone, without 
considering the suitability of each site in other respects. Analyses are 
presented for those gaging-station sites which have some degree of transfer 
value to other ungaged sites where future reservoirs may be built. 


The method of analysis used in this report is based on within-year 
storages required to sustain various draft rates continuously. Constant 
draft rates are superimposed on daily discharges for each year beginning 
Apri 1 1 and ending March 31. A full reservoir is assumed at the 
beginning of each year. On those days when the streamflow is greater than 
a given draft, a positive storage value accrues. When streamflow falls 
below a given draft rate a negative storage value accrues. A cumulative 
storage table is then formed and, for the given draft rate, the greatest 
difference between successive highest and lowest values in the table 
constitutes the storage required to maintain that draft for that year. 
A check is then made to see if the indicated storage required was 
replenished at the end of the year. If similar analyses for a number 
of years show that storage was not replenished consistently, the 
corresponding draft rates may be too high to be sustained. The process 
is repeated for various other draft rates for each year of record. 
From this information a series of draft-storage-frequency relations 
may be prepared such as are shown in figure 19. 


- 39 - 



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Recurrence i nterva I, in years 


Figure 19.--Draft-storage-frequency curves for the Hudson River 
at Newcomb, based on 1926-63 cl imatic years. 


From figure 19 we may interpret, for instance, that for a constant draft 
rate of 60 cfs and a failure probability of 0.05 (recurrence interval of 
20 years), the within-year storage required would be l,620 cfs-days II. 


11 Storage is expressed in cfs-days where 1 cfs-day equals 
86,400 cubic feet or l.98 acre-feet. 


- 40 - 



Stated another way, it is expected that, for a draft of 60 cfs and a 
storage capacity of 1,620 cfs-days, there will be insufficient water to 
maintain that particular draft at some time during an average time 
interval of 20 years even if the reservoir is full at the beginning of 
each year. However, the magnitude and duration of such an insufficiency 
(or deficiency) cannot be predicted from these particular relations. 


Tabulated draft-storage-frequency information for gaging stations is 
presented in Append i x 1. It is expected that these data wi 11 gi ve water 
managers a "feel l' for the amounts of water which are available from 
similar streams throughout the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region. Some 
reports show storage requirements only up to certain upper limits. Cross 
(1963) uses an upper limit of 100 million gallons per square mile of 
drainage area. This report places no upper limit on storage requirements 
because, in many locations, natural storage is available in the form of 
lakes or ponds which far exceeds what would otherwise be economical to 
provide. Maximum draft rates, however, should not be larger than the 
smallest annual mean discharge of record, or, if no flow records are 
available at the site of application, several discharge measurements 
should be performed to determine the flow characteristics of the site. 
These characteristics may then be compared to similar streams in the 
general area for which records are presently available, and on the basis 
of these comparisons, an estimate of the smallest mean annual discharge 
at the ungaged site may be made. 


It is apparent that the value of draft-storage-frequency relations 
would be much enhanced if regional relations could be developed. The 
U.S. Geological Survey is currently conducting a statewide water- 
resources study, one part of which will be to define regional storage 
requirements for New York. When data for the entire state are analyzed, 
regional patterns will emerge which are not readily apparent from an 
examination of only one part of the state. 


- 41 - 



GROUND 


WATER 


OCCURRENCE AND AVAILABILITY 


Ground water in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region occurs both in 
unconsol idated deposits and in consol idated rocks. In the unconsol idated 
deposits it occurs in pores, or openings, between the grains (primary 
openings); in consolidated rocks it occurs mainly in joints, fractures, 
bedding-plane openings, and solution cavities (secondary openings). These 
primary and secondary openings act as both conduits and reservoirs for the 
transmission and storage of ground water. The degree of interconnection 
between the openings controls the permeability of the rocks and trans- 
mission of ground water whereas the size and number of openings control 
storage capacity of the rocks. The water found in primary and secondary 
openings is directly or indirectly derived from precipitation. After 
entering the earth a part of it percolates downward to the water table 
where it then moves through interconnected openings down the hydraulic 
gradient to points of discharge. 


The greatest amount of influent precipitation reaches the water table 
during the fall, winter, and early spring, when vegetation is dormant and 
soil-moisture requirements are satisfied. This period of recharge is 
illustrated in figure 20, the hydrograph of observation well 25-39 
located at the village of Salem. The hydrograph shows the highest monthly 
water level (arbitrarily plotted at the end of each month) and the total 
monthly precipitation recorded by the U.S. Weather Bureau at Salem; it 
also shows that the water table real izes the most recharge from mid-fall 
to mid-spring and very 1 ittle or none during the summer when evapotrans- 
piration losses are greatest. Note that although large amounts of 
precipitation fell during the summer of 1962, the water level continued to 
decline, indicating that little or no water reached the water table during 
that period of time. 


The velocity with which ground water moves is directly proportional to 
the permeabil ity of the enclosing rocks and the hydraul ic gradient. Since 
the rate of movement through most rocks is slow (usually less than a foot 
per day), water is essentially "stored" between areas of recharge and 
discharge. In some places this transient ground water occurs under 
artesian conditions (or pressure) in both unconsolidated deposits and 
consolidated rocks. These conditions generally occur in unconsolidated 
deposits where permeable beds are confined by less permeable beds and in 
the consolidated rocks where lateral permeability is greater than 
vertical permeability. 


The occurrence and availabi 1 ity of ground water in the various 
geologic units are described in the following sections. The water-bearing 
properties of each unit are summarized in table 2. 


- 42 - 



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UNCONSOLIDATED DEPOSITS 


Sand and gravel 


Saturated sand and gravel deposits often are the best water-yielding 
unconsolidated deposits in the study area. They are generally the thicker 
deposits located in valley bottoms. These deposits are especially good 
aquifers when they are hydraul ically connected with surface streams such 
as at the vi 11age of Ray Brook. The sand and gravel receives recharge 
from both precipitation and the stream of Ray Brook. A 6-inch, 35-foot 
screened well (32-13) tapping the deposit is estimated to yield 70 gpm 
(gallons per minute). (See appendix 4 and 4A for additional information 
on wells and springs cited in this report.) The sand and gravel deposits 
along the North Branch Bouquet River, the Hudson River, and the East 
Branch Sacandaga River are found in similar hydrologic settings, and they 
too probably are good aquifers. 


Buried deposits of sand and gravel usually are saturated, but they do 
not necessarily yield large quantities of water to wells. The buried 
deposits are saturated by water which enters them from the surrounding 
materiaL If the buried deposit is small, the lesser permeability of the 
surrounding material may control the yield by restricting the movement of 
water into the sand and gravel as at well 57-02 in the Saranac valley. 
The yield of an 8-foot gravel bed surrounded by less permeable clay was 
reported to be 8 or 9 gpm. (See cross section in plate l.) Small yields 
are also reported for other wells tapping sand and gravel aquifers. It is 
probable that these wells are completed in sand and gravel lenses buried 
in less permeable till. 


One extensive area of buried gravel was penetrated by wells in the 
Champlain basin, and there may be others. This area is located under the 
till between West Beekmantown and West Plattsburgh (pl. 1). Well data 
suggest that this may not be a continuous body of sand and gravel, but 
that it consists of two or more smaller deposits. Yields of wells 
tapping these deposits are generally greater than 30 gpm, and artesian 
conditions are present in the vicinity of West Plattsburgh. 


Smaller deposits of sand and gravel, in the form of buried channel 
deposits, also occur in the area. Seismic work by the New York State 
Department of Public Works indicates that there are several buried 
channels in the southern part of the study area. Channels near Corinth 
and Wilton are covered by sand. One east of Fort Edward is covered by 
clay. Proposed test drill ing by the state later this year (l967) should 
better define the locations of most of these channels and the nature of 
the deposits they contain. Seismic velocities indicate that the channels 
probably contain saturated sand and gravel. The approximate locations of 
the channels are shown in plate 1. 


Seve ra 1 lid ryll sand and grave 1 depo sit s we re found in the study a rea 
and others probably exist (fig. 3). Two of these deposits are located 
on hi 11sides just east of the villages of Elizabethtown and Black Brook. 
One well (31-28) 270 feet deep penetrated about 31 feet of sand and gravel 
near Elizabethtown before reaching bedrock. The water level in the well 
is reported to be 28 feet below land surface or 3 feet above bedrock. 


- 44 - 



Well 28-16, near Black Brook, is 145 feet deep and penetrates about 50 feet 
of sand, gravel, and boulders before entering bedrock. The water level was 
found to be 74 feet below land surface. Undoubtedly, high permeabil ities 
and steeply sloping water tables are responsible for the dry sand and gravel 
deposits. Other dry deposits are located at New Russia, near Loon Lake, and 
North Hudson. These deposits are thin veneers of sand and gravel. The New 
Russia deposit is underlain by silt and the others are underlain by sand. 
Water readi ly penetrates the permeable sand and gravel and enters the 
underlying si It or sand. 


Sand 


Sand deposits are the most extensive and second-best yielding 
unconsolidated aquifers in the study area. Based mainly on physical 
location, they may be divided into three groups: (1) hillside delta 
deposits, (2) valley-fill deposits, and (3) buried deposits. (See figure 
3 and plate 1.) These groups are quite similar in physical composition; 
all consist mainly of stratified sand with some silt and gravel. However, 
they are somewhat dissimilar with respect to the occurrence and movement 
of ground water in them. 


Delta deposits are shown in plate 1 along the Saranac River at 
Moffitsvi lle, Redford, and Clayburg; some are found along the Ausable 
River, and others along Lake Champlain and in the Upper Hudson area. 
These deposits generally cover less than 10 square miles, and are 
located on the walls of valleys formerly occupied by glacial lakes. 


The porosity and permeability of the delta deposits may be comparable 
to that of the other two groups of sand deposits, but the method of 
recharge and rate of water movement are somewhat different. Precipitation 
is usually the sole recharging agent of the deltas. Because of the 
relatively small size of the deposits and the large vertical exposures 
(possible discharge areas) along one or more valleys, steeply sloping 
water tables exist in the deposits (fig. 3), and ground water moves 
rather quickly through them. Note, however, that the delta sand deposits 
retard the movement of ground water more than hillside gravel deposits. 
Hence, few sand deltas are dry. 


Much of the ground-water discharges from the deltas through "contact" 
or "seep" springs at their bases. (Records of some of these springs are 
given in appendix 5.) The springs may yield substantial quantities of 
water. One spring, 27-58, was developed for a former fish hatchery at 
the base of a delta deposit near Cadyville. It was estimated to yield 
87 gpm. Another spring, 50-08, at the base of a delta, yields 
about 12 gpm and has been developed as a water supply tor the village of 
Saranac (note: not village of Saranac Lake). Unused springs are 
reported at the bases of deltas at Clayburg and Morrisonvil1e on the 
south side of the Saranac River. 


- 45 - 



The approximate annual yield from a delta deposit may be calculated 
if we assume that precipitation is the only source of recharge to the 
deltas and that one-quarter (9 inches) of the average annual precipi- 
tation enters the deposit and reaches the water table. This means that 
for each square mi le of the delta's surface, 150,000,000 gallons of water 
are being added to the deposit annually. Since the water table in the 
delta deposits remains at approximately the same level year after year, 
the recharge to and discharge from the deposit must be approximately the 
same. Therefore, the annual discharge, or yield, of a delta deposit is 
approximately equal to the recharge surface in square miles times 
l50,000,000 gallons. 


Part of the water moving toward discharge areas may be recovered by 
wells or by developing springs at the bases of the deposits. The probable 
annual yield of a delta spring can be calculated using a form of Darcy's 
law -- Q = PIA. 


Where: Q = yield, in gallons per day 


P = permeability, in gallons per day per square foot 


= hydraulic gradient (or slope of water table in feet 
per foot) 


A = area of discharge at the spring in square feet. 


Using the yields of the previously cited hatchery spring (27-58) and the 
Saranac spring (58-08), assuming a hydraul ic gradient of 0.2 and using 
field-estimated areas of discharge, values of permeability of 21,000 and 
9,000 gpd per ft 2 (gallons per day per square foot) are computed for the 
deposits at the respective springs. If these permeabil ities are assumed 
to be representative of all delta deposits, then springs developed at the 
bases of the deposits may be expected to yield between 1,500 and 4,000 
gallons per day for each square foot of discharge area normal to the 
direction of ground-water flow at the spring. However, the annual yield 
of a spring also depends upon the size of the recharge area supplying the 
spring. For instance, a spring with a quarter of a square mile recharge 
area has a probable annual yield one-quarter of l50,000,000 or 37,500,000 
gallons per year - a continuous yield of about 70 gpm for 1 year. It 
should be pointed out, however, that the springs may yield more or less 
than the calculated amounts because of the channeling effects of 
irregularities in the surface of the bedrock underlying the delta and 
because of variations in the slope of the water table caused by greater 
recharge in the spring and lesser recharge in the summer and fall. 


Valley-fill deposits .--Valley-fill sand deposits occur throughout the 
study area ( pl. l ) ; the most extensive ones are found near Glens Falls, 
Plattsburgh, and in Franklin County. Unlike the hi 1 Iside delta deposits, 
the valley-fill deposits are more extensive and occupy lowlands or areas 
of low reI ief. These deposits consist of si It, sand, and gravel of delta, 
lake, and marine origin. The processes of ground-water recharge, movement, 
storage, and discharge are simi lar to those in the delta deposits. However, 


- 46 - 



because these deposits are positioned in valley bottoms, they are sometimes 
recharged by influent streams as well as by precipitation. Also ground- 
water movement is slower, water storage is greater, and discharge is 
generally slower. Therefore, the valley-fi 11 deposits usually contain more 
water and have a higher water-yielding potential than the delta deposits. 


Small-diameter driven wells have been installed in the valley-fill 
sands near Glens Falls, Plattsburgh, and in Franklin County, and they yield 
enough water for domestic needs. The yield of small-diameter (2.5 inches) 
screened test wells installed in the sand at Glens Falls by the Town of 
Queensbury was found to vary from 5 to 70 gpm. The wide range in yield is 
attributed mainly to variations in permeability due to particle-size 
differences. This variation probably occurs in all of the val ley-fill 
deposits; hence, a similar range of well yields may be expected from many 
of them. Ground-water discharges from the valley-fill deposits through 
springs and streams. The highest yielding spring inventoried (18-51) 
suppl ies water for the village of Cambridge. The spring is reported to 
yield 475 gpm. 


The annual safe yield of the valley-fill deposits depends upon their 
extent, saturated thickness, and water-bearing characteristics, as well as 
the amount of recharge they receive. Therefore, the annual yield varies 
widely from one deposit to another and a detailed discussion of yield is 
not presented here. The discussion of the Glens Falls area in the section 
entitled "Major Ground-Water Areas" contains a sample calculation of the 
annual yield of a val ley-fill deposit. Many of the principles and 
assumptions presented in that discussion may be used in estimating the 
annual safe yield of other valley-fill deposits. 


Buried sand deposits .--Buried sand deposits are found in the vicinity 
of Loon Lake, near the village of Beekmantown, and at the mouth of the 
Great Chazy River. They are believed to be delta deposits which were 
subsequently buried by lake si It and clay or by outwash sand and gravel. 
The approximate areal extent of these deposits is shown in plate 1. The 
buried deposits derive their water from the surrounding rock material and 
from precipitation that enters exposed portions of each deposit. Ground 
water from the aquifers may be discharged to adjacent aquifers, surface 
streams, or springs. 


Of the three buried deposits shown in plate 1, the Loon Lake deposit 
probably has the best water-bearing potential (this deposit is discussed 
in the section on "Major Ground-Water Areas"). The coarse-grained sand 
and gravel overlying the sand is conducive to rapid infiltration of 
precipitation, and, hence, rapid recharge to the buried sand. Also, 
recharge from surface water may be induced by pumping wells adjacent to 
the numerous lakes, ponds, and streams of that area. The sand is 215 
feet thick at well 40-39, which is reported to be finished in a gravel 
layer within the sand. The yield of the well is estimated by the driller 
to be 40 gpm. 


- 47 - 



The water-bearing potential of the other buried deposits is undoubtedly 
less than that of the Loon Lake deposit since they are estimated to be less 
than 40 feet in thickness and are covered by silt and clay of low perme- 
abil ity. For water to recharge these deposits, it must enter through small 
surface exposures of the deposits or percolate through the overlying silt 
and clay before entering the sand. The thickness of the silt and clay 
varies, but it is about 20 feet at wells 17-44 and 56-21. The yield to 
individual wells finished in these deposits is not known. However, the 
yield of wells finished in the deposit at Beekmantown and the one at the 
mouth of the Great Chazy River probably vary directly with the permeability 
which is believed to increase northward. 


Silt and clay 


Si It and clay occurs in extensive deposits on the Hudson lowlands and 
on the lowlands along Lake Champlain. Although these deposits contain 
appreciable amounts of water, their low permeability makes them unimportant 
as aquifers. Occasionally, usable quantities of water can be obtained from 
sand layers or sand and gravel lenses in the clay, but, even then, the 
replenishment of water pumped from these layers or lenses is controlled by 
the lower permeabil ity of the surrounding silt and clay. 


That the silt and clay is a poor aquifer is illustrated by well 45-07 
near the village of Crown Point. This well penetrated about 20 feet of 
sand overlying 217 feet of silt and clay. No water-bearing layers or 
lenses were found in the silt and clay, so the casing was perforated at 
about 20 feet to allow water from the surficial sand to drain into the 
well for a total yield of about 2 gpm. 


T ill 


The till may be divided into (1) sandy till, and (2) clayey till when 
discussing the occurrence and avai labi 1 ity of ground water. The sandy ti 11 
is the more permeable of the two types. It is usually composed of unsorted, 
angular, sand-size rock material and some si It and boulders. The presence 
of large quantities of silt and/or boulders greatly reduce the permeability 
of the till. However, present well data show that drilled wells finished 
in sandy till yield from 1 gpm to 20 gpm. Although some of the higher- 
yielding wells are reported to be tapping sand and gravel, in reality they 
are probably finished in sand and gravel lenses which occur within the 
sandy till. 


The clayey till contains rock particles of all sizes including 
considerable amounts of clay filling the intergranular pores between the 
si It, sand, and boulders. The presence of large amounts of fine-grained 
material in the clayey till renders it relatively impermeable. Therefore, 
it yields usable quantities of water only to large-diameter wells. The 
yield of the wells is generally dependent upon the number of sand or sand 
and gravel lenses open to the well. These lenses, or partings, (which 
also occur in the sandy till) are more permeable than the surrounding 


- 48 - 



ti 11, and they act as drainage "l a teral SII which conduct water from the 
less permeable till to the well. However, few lenses or partings may be 
found in a dug well 2 to 4 feet in diameter and its yield may be less than 
1 gallon per minute. 


CONSOLIDATED ROCKS 


Crystal 1 ine rocks 


Because primary porosity is almost negl igible in the crystal line rocks, 
ground water is found mainly in the secondary openings that are associated 
with this group of rocks. Below depths of about 300 feet water-bearing 
openings are relatively small and are less abundant, as indicated by a 
detailed petrographic description of the core obtained from well 15-24, 
near Chazy Lake, which was completed in granite gneiss overlain by 83 feet 
of unconsol idated material. The core shows chemical weathering by ground 
water along joints, fractures, and foliation planes to a depth of 225 feet 
below the land surface. The detai led log for another well, 55-11, which 
penetrates anorthosite near Lewis, indicates that only closed fractures 
exhibiting no apparent weathering were found below 20 feet. Logs of two 
nearby test holes, 40 feet deep, indicate numerous, intensively weathered 
fractures to the bottoms of the holes. This suggests that open fracture 
patterns are very local ized. Where there is an abundance of fractures in 
the crystalline rocks, there is more ground-water movement and, therefor
, 
more weathering. 


The relatively low yields of deep wells tapping the crystalline rocks 
is further evidence that there are fewer water-bearing openings below about 
300 feet. For instance, well 17-48, near Crown Point, is 400 feet deep, 
penetrating 304 feet into crystal line rock, and has a reported yield of 
1 gpm. A well near El izabethtown was drilled to a depth of over 700 feet 
in crystall ine rock; the yield was reported to be too small to supply a 
small farm and the well was abandoned. An open-pit titanium mine completed 
in anorthosite and gabbro rocks at Tahawus, New York, also illustrates the 
impermeabil ity of the crystal line rocks. The rim of the pit approximates 
an ell ipse with major and minor axes of about 2,400 feet and 1,000 feet, 
respectively. The pit is 350 feet deep, and the sides of the pit slope 
inward so that the dimensions at the bottom are perhaps two-thirds those 
of the rim. (Essentially, the pit is a large-diameter dug well.) Seepage 
can be seen entering the pit from the top to the bottom through a few 
joints and fault fractures. One large impermeable fault admits 1 ittle or 
no water to the mine. It is reported that when the mine was in operation, 
about 150 gpm of water had to be pumped from it to keep the bottom dry. 
Logs of deep test holes at the mine indicate that crushed rock is found 
at depths of over 850 feet below the land surface, but the occurrence'of" 
ground water was not recorded. I t seems 1 i kely, however, that )nter- . 
connected fractures probably exist to such depths and that so
e grbund 
water does percolate to the bottom of the fractures. 


- 49 - 



The yields of wel Is finished in crystall ine rock range from about 1/2 
to 35 gpm and average about 12 gpm. However, better than average yields are 
provided by wells finished in fractured crystal lines overlain by permeable 
unconsol idated deposits in valley areas. The yields of 9 such wells range 
from 5 to 35 gpm and average 19 gpm. All but I of the 9 wells yield more 
than lO gpm. 


Sandstone 


Because the sandstone in the area is usually well cemented by si lica, 
hematite, or calcite cement, the intergrain porosity is generally low. 
Therefore, ground water occurs mainly in joints, fractures, and faults. 
The physical character and composition of the sandstone unit is somewhat 
va r i ed . I n many p I ace 5 i tis cemen ted by s i 1 i ca into an i mpe rmeab 1 e 
dense quartzite. In other places it is cemented by carbonate cement. 
Weathering has removed the carbonate cement in a few places forming a 
porous friable sandstone. Toward the top of the sandstone, dolomite 
beds are numerous. At Ausable Chasm the sandstone is wel I cemented with 
si 1 ica and appears impermeable. The 100-foot vertical walls of the chasm 
are usually free from ground-water seepage. The only wet areas on the 
walls are several weathered and eroded 20- to 30-foot wide vertical zones 
that have been subjected to intensive weathering by the movement of ground 
water through them. The deep gorge, cut by the river, drains the ground 
water from the fractured zones. This drainage causes an increase in the 
rate of ground-water movement through the zones and increased chemical 
weathering occurs. These fracture zones may exist throughout the entire 
sandstone unit) but they are probably not as highly weathered and, thus, 
much narrower than the zones near the chasm. One of these fractured areas 
may be located near Mooers Forks. Records for a dri lled well in this 
vicinity indicate numerous "seams" in the sandstone to a depth of 150 feet. 
The "seams" are reported open and water bearing. One "seam" is reported to 
be 4 inches wide and another, 120 feet below land surface, is reported to 
be 8 or 10 inches wide. Many of the openings found in this well were 
fi 1 led with sand which may have been derived from the weathering of the 
sandstone or the overlying sandy ti 115. 


The fractured nature of the sandstone is demonstrated by a private dam 
bui It in the early 1900's on Little Chazy River about 3 1/2 miles west of 
the vi 1lage of West Chazy. About three-fourths of the dam is bui It on 
sandstone bedrock and the other one-fourth is on a glacial moraine. The 
valley upstream from the dam is underlain by sandstone which is near the 
surface except for a small area behind the northeast end of the dam. It 
is reported that the dam did not hold water when it was completed. The 
bui Ider then partially paved the valley floor on the upstream side of the 
dam with concrete, but the dam still did not hold water and the project 
was abandoned. The topography near the dam indicates the presence of at 
least one fault in the valley beneath the dam, and this fault (or faults) 
or joints and fractures are providing paths for water leakage beneath the 
dam. 


- 50 - 



The faults, joints, and fractured zones that occur at the surface 
of the sandstone provide paths for recharging water. The recharging water 
is usually leakage from adjacent bedrock or overlying unconsolidated 
deposits. The occurrence of artesian conditions in many parts of the 
sandstone suggest that the lateral openings along which ground water moves 
are more numerous than vertical ones. The lateral openings consist of open 
bedding planes, fractured beds, and perhaps beds from which the carbonate 
cement has been removed by weathering. Because of the greater lateral 
permeabi 1 i ty, the sandstone (and carbonate rocks) in the northern area 
form an artesian system which is recharged on the slopes of the Adirondack 
Mountains and is discharged to Lake Champlain and the lowlands on the east 
(see section on the "Plattsburgh Area," page 64, for a complete discussion 
of this artesian system). 


The sandstone is second only to the carbonate rocks in its water- 
bearing capabil ities. All wells in the sandstone were found to yield 
sufficient quantities of water for normal domestic needs. The yields of 
wells finished in the sandstone near Sacandaga Reservoir range from 2 to 
100 gpm. Yields from 17 wells finished in the sandstone of the northern 
area range from 2 to 30 gpm, but the upper limit of this range is thought 
to be about 100 gpm since some wells were reportedly pumped at 30 gpm with 
only 5 feet of drawdown. Cushman (1953) reports that the average yield of 
four wells in the sandstone of Washington County was about 2 gpm. 


Carbonate rocks 


The carbonate rocks are generally dense and impermeable. Ground water 
occurs in secondary openings such as joints, fractures, faults, bedding- 
plane openings, and solution cavities. Bedding-plane openings seem to be 
of chief importance throughout the carbonate rocks. The importance of the 
other types of openings varies with local ity. 


Cushman (1953, p. 34) determined that joints are the main ground-water 
conduits in the carbonates in Washington County and that "... drillers have 
reported encountering only occasional solution channels of small dimensions 
below the water table ..." Homeowners and well drillers in the northern 
part of the Lake Champlain basin, however, report several underground 
solution channels of considerable dimensions in the carbonates. Solution 
openings are reported at depths of 300 feet and 297 feet in wells 45-54 
(west of Valcour Island) and 51-17 (north of Plattsburgh), respectively. 
It is reported that very few other water-bearing openings were found in 
these wells. Another well, 59-07, west of Valcour Island penetrated a 
5-foot cavity at a depth of about 120 feet, where the first significant 
quantity of water was obtained. 


Well data indicate that the carbonate rocks along the central part of 
Lake Champlain generally are less permeable than the carbonates in other 
parts of the study area. Water-bearing openings found here generally are 
bedding-plane openings. A test hole l85 feet deep was drilled for the 
U.S. Air Force in the carbonates just south of Wi Ilsboro Village and 
yielded about 2.5 gpm. Other nearby wells also indicate rocks of low 


- 51 - 



permeabi 1 ity. Wells 45-48 and 55-58 in the same vicinity are 120 feet 
and 326 feet deep, respectively. Both are finished in carbonates and have 
a yield of about 3 gpm. The fact that the deeper well is located less than 
100 feet from the shore of Lake Champlain and has an artesian head about 
10 feet higher than the lake level, indicates a poor hydraul ic connection 
between the well and the lake. 


It was pointed out in the previous section that artesian conditions 
prevail in many parts of tne northern sandstone unit, suggesting that 
lateral permeabil ity is greater than vertical permeability. The same 
artesian condition is found in the carbonate rocks of the northern part of 
the study area. It is bel ieved that the carbonate rocks of this area 
contain openings similar to those in the dolomite of the Niagara Falls area 
of New York as described by Johnston (1964). Johnston observed openings in 
the dolomite rocks and the occurrence of ground water in excavations for tne 
conduits of the Niagara Power Project. He determined that bedding-plane 
openings that have been sl ightly widened by solution transmit most of the 
ground water. These planar openings were observed to persist for 3 to 4 
miles. The solution cavities found are generally less than 1 inch high 
and most abundant in the top 10 to l5 feet of rock. No large cavities 
were found. Many of the water-bearing zones occur in intervals of jointed 
thin beds from 1/4 to about 4 inches thick that are directly overlain by 
massive beds. The explanation offered for these water-bearing zones is 
that the greater structural rigidity of the massive beds allows the under- 
lying joints to remain open and transmit water. Vertical joints were found 
to be important only in the thin layers just mentioned and in the top few 
feet of rock. 


The carbonate rocks of the study area are similar to those of the 
Niagara area in that they contain both dolomites and limestones, they are 
usually gently dipping, and they have been subjected to scour by glaciation 
during the ice age. The surface exposures suggest that they may have 
developed simi lar water-bearing openings, with two important exceptions: 
the carbonates of the study area contain some large solution cavities, and 
the rocks have been extensively faulted by a series of generally north- 
south and east-west trending faults (Fisher 1967) of which the north-south 
faults are more numerous. These cavities increase the storage capacity of 
the carbonates but probably do not increase the permeability much because 
they are discontinuous. Present data suggest that most of the faults have 
a 1 imited effect on the movement of ground water in the artesian system in 
the northern part of the study area. However, faulting may have a 
significant effect in the area north of Chazy Village and just east of the 
Delaware and Hudson Railroad tracks. Well data indicate that bedrock in 
this area is relatively permeable; but it is not known if this permeability 
is due mainly to faults and their associated fractures, or to natural 
jointing of the limestones. The uppermost part of the carbonate unit, 
mostly 1 imestones, underl ies this general area and contains at least some 
fractures at shallow depths. One fracture or joint, about 2 inches wide, 
was observed at the top of the bedrock beneath about 9 feet of clayey ti 11 
as well 33-58, near Chazy, was being dri 11ed. When the well was 31 feet 
deep, it could not be bailed dry at a rate of approximately 30 gpm. This 
yield would indicate extensive ground-water storage or high rock permeabil ity 


- 52 - 



due to numerous interconnected joints or fractures. The yield of a 42-foot 
deep well, 58-55, near Ro
ses Point is reported to be at least 30 gpm. 
This yield also suggests interconnected water-bearing joints or fractures 
in the bedrock. The joints or fractures that occur in this particular area 
may be associated with the local faulting. (See the section on the 
"Plattsburgh Area" for additional information on the effect of faults.) 


The yield of wells finished in the carbonate rocks depends upon the 
local water-bearing characteristics of the rocks as previously described in 
this section. Although wells tapping the carbonates have low yields in some 
areas, generally they have the highest yields of any wells in the consoli- 
dated rocks. Lowest yields are obtained along central Lake Champlain and in 
Washington County where the rocks are less permeable. The yields of 51 wells 
finished in the carbonates in Washington County range from 1 to 80 gpm and 
average about 13 gpm (Cushman, 1953, p. 34). Highest yields are obtained 
in the northern and southern parts of the study area where the rocks are 
more permeable. The yields for 17 wells finished in the carbonates of the 
northern area range from 2 to 200 gpm and averages 35 gpm; the yields for 
25 wel Is finished in the carbonate rocks in the southern section are reported 
to range from 1 to 300 gpm and average about 30 gpm (Heath and others, 
1 963, p. 1 6) . 


Shale 


Only a small part of the area is underlain by shale, and little 
information was collected on wells completed in the shale during this study. 
Therefore, most information on the occurrence and avai lability of ground 
water in the shale was extracted from the reports on the ground water of 
Saratoga County (Heath and others 1963) and Washington County (Cushman 1953). 
Parts of these counties form the southern section of the study area. 


The principal water-bearing openings in the shale are joints and 
bedding-plane openings that are found mainly in the upper part of the unit. 
This is supported by Mack's description (Heath and others, 1963, p. 59) of 
wel 1 Sa 528T in the Saratoga County report. The well is located near West 
Milton and he reports that it penetrated approximately 500 feet of shale 
before entering the underlying limestone. At a depth of 580 feet, the yield 
of the well was about 17 gpm. The hole was deepened to 675 feet and there 
was no noticeable increase in yield. Mack reports that (p. 59) "... 
probably most, if not all, of the water produced by the well was derived 
from the upper part of the shale." Cushman (1953, p. 35) also says of 
wells finished in shale in Washington County that, "The available records 
show that at depths greater than about 250 feet there is 1 ittle or no 
increase in the yield of wells penetrating the Snake Hill [shale] formation. 1I 
The size of water-bearing openings in the shale is bel ieved to be relatively 
small in most local ities. Therefore, only small amounts of ground water can 
move through the rocks, and only small amounts of water can be expected from 
wells completed in them. However, seldom is a well drilled in shale that 
does not yield some water. Occasionally, wells yield as high as 50 or 80 
gpm. Well data in the ground-water reports of Saratoga and Washington 
Counties suggest that wells finished in shale beneath permeable, saturated, 


- 53 - 



unconsolidated deposits sometimes yield more water than other wells in the 
shale if the shale in which they are finished contains sufficient joints 
and fractures to drain water from the overlying unconsolidated material. 


The major source of recharge to shales in the southern part of the 
study area is undoubtedly the overlying, unconsolidated deposits. The head 
in wells finished in shale near the valley bottoms indicates that ground 
water is moving toward the lower elevations and discharging in the vicinity 
of the Hudson River. 


Shale in the northern part of the study area is believed to be about 
200 feet thick, (Donald W. Fisher, oral commun., 1967) and relatively 
unimportant as a water-bearing unit. This shale is not overlain by thick, 
permeable deposits, and it probably wi 11 yield less water to wells than the 
shales located in the Hudson val ley. Most wells on Cumberland Head 
Peninsula are bel ieved to penetrate the shale and to derive water from the 
underlying carbonates. The shale unit probably is less than 100 feet thick 
at wel I 06-18, because the well is reported by the driller to have produced 
50 gpm when it was 100 feet deep and 200 gpm when it was drilled to a depth 
of 200 feet. These yields suggest the presence of more permeable carbonates 
below the shale unit. 


Heath and others (1963) found the yields of 110 wells finished in the 
shales of Saratoga County to range from 0.5 to 80 gpm and to average about 
10 gpm; Cushman (l953) reports a range of yields from 0.5 to 35 gpm with an 
average of about 8 gpm for wel Is finished in the same shale unit in 
Washington County. The higher range and average yield of wells in Saratoga 
County may be due to greater amounts of saturated sand deposits overlying 
the shale unit. 


Taconic sequence 


The Taconic sequence of rocks consists of "dirty" sandstones, slates, 
and shale, with interbedded 1 imestones. During the course of this study, 
1 ittle field data was collected on the Taconic sequence. Therefore, the 
following is taken from the report by Cushman (1953, p. 35-36): 


These rocks yield small but rel iable quantities 
of water to many drilled wells in Washington 
County. Storage and movement of water is 
controlled by joints and cleavage planes. 
Several rock types are included in this grouping, 
and the type and degree of metamorphism have some 
bearing on the yield of wel ls. The average yield 
of 87 wells drilled into shale and grit (dirty 
sandstone) facies of the Taconic sequence is 
8.8 gpm. The wells range in depth from 40 to 
590 feet and have an average depth of 136 feet. 


- 54 - 



The best water-bearing bed within the shale forma- 
tions appears to be the calcareous sandstone at 
the top of Cushing and Ruedemann's Bomoseen grit 
(dirty sandstone). The hard, brittle character 
of the rock causes it to fracture more easily, 
thereby developing many more open joints and 
fractures. The average yield of 17 wells known 
to penetrate the sandstone is 9.4 gpm. 


The Mettawee slate along the northeastern border of 
the County in the vicinity of Granville yields 
some water but cannot be classed as a satisfactory 
aquifer; its average yield is far below that of 
other rocks of the Taconic sequence. The rock 
itself is dense and impermeable, but some water 
percolates along joints and crevices. Ground 
water was seen to seep from many of the joints in 
slate quarries near Granville. The average yield 
of 6 wells in slate for which records were 
collected is 2.8 gpm. One well, W 103, was 
abandoned at a depth of 490 feet without 
encountering a water-bearing joint or fracture. 
The average depth of the wells in Mettawee slate 
i s 1 88 fee t . 


Two slate quarries near Granville, New York, were visited during the 
course of the present study. The two observed pits were located about 50 
feet apart along the strike of the slate bedrock which dips at about 60 
degrees. One pit (A) was about 80 feet deep with some water at its bottom; 
the other pit (B) of unknown depth had a head approximately 75 feet above 
that of pit (A). An estimated 0.5 cfs, or 225 gpm, was observed flowing 
from pit B to pit A through the rock wall. Over 50 percent of the water 
was coming through the upper 15 or 20 feet of rock, suggesting that the 
permeabil ity of the slate is relatively higher near the surface than it is 
at depth. 


Based on these observations and using Darcyls law, the permeability of 
the slate parallel to its strike was calculated to be roughly 50 gpd per 
square foot. Naturally, the permeabil ity of the upper 15 to 20 feet of 
rock is slightly greater. 


MAJOR GROUND -WATER AREAS 


The major ground-water areas of the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region 
are those ar
as having aquifers larger than 10 square miles that annually 
yield or could potentially yield large quantities of water. Two major 
areas for which the most data are available are fully discussed in this 
section. Other areas that are bel ieved to contain major aquifers are 
also cited and briefly discussed. 


- 55 - 



GLENS FALLS AREA 


The deposits (both sand and sand and gravel) of the Hudson valley in 
the vicinity of Glens Falls is the largest and thickest unconsolidated 
aquifer in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region (p1. 1). The deposit is 
over 15 miles long in a north-south direction, 9 mi les wide at its widest 
point, and 1 mile wide at its narrowest. It is bordered by highlands on 
the north and west, and by the Hudson River on the east. The surface is 
one of generally low reI ief with rolling hills, some deep gull ies, and 
numerous terraces as seen in figure 21. 


. 
> 
o 
4OO.A 
o 


- 
. 
. 
I&. 
300 


r 


200 


200 


Horizontal leal. -line". I "'II, 


SE 


NW 


Figure 21.--Area west of vertical section through wells 46-34, 12-52, and 
56-04 near Glens Falls showing the placement of four wells for 
the removal of 500,000 gpd of water from an area 1 mile square. 


The bulk of the deposit varies in size from fine- to coarse-grained 
sand, but some layers of silt occur at depth. Gravel deposits occur in an 
esker ridge (a deposit formed by a subglacial stream) at the north end of 
the area. Particle-size analyses (Heath and others, 1963, p. 98) of samples 
from bore holes in the sand at Saratoga National Historic Park (7 miles south 
of Schuylervi lle near the west side of the Hudson River) showed that the 
deposit consists mainly of medium- and fine-grained sand as seen in figure 
22. The sand deposit south of Fortsvil1e is probably of simi lar composition; 
drillers' logs for wells and visual inspection indicate that the size of the 
surficial material north of Fortsville is generally larger, especially near 
Glen Lake and where the Hudson River emerges from the mountains. 


- 56 - 



GRAVEL 
100 
"C 
Q) 
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Ct1 
(.) 
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c 
(f) 80 
Q) 
N 
(f) 
c 70 
ca 

 
+-' 

 

 
co eo 
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(f) 
(f) 
+-' 
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(f) 
'0 
..; 

 30 
C' 
'Q) 
;: 

 20 
..; 
c 
Q) 

 10 
Q) 
a... 
0 
200 


SIL T 
FINE VERY FINE 
EX PLANATION 
SYMBOL BORE DEPTH 
HOLE eFT.) 

 12 17-18 
" 13 17-18 
........... 
.......... 14 7-10 
.......... 
.. . '. 
I 7 7-8 
'.. 18 22-25 
.......... 
, 19 
......... 18-20 
.......... 8-10 
............. 20 


1.0 oo
 0025 
Diameter of grains, in mill imeters 


0.125 


0 0 062 


Figure 22.--Particle-size analyses of sand samples from bore holes about 
6 miles south of Schuylerville on the west side of the 
Hudson River. (From Heath, R. C. and others, 1963, p. 99.) 


Well data show that the sand deposit is thickest northwest of Glens 
Falls -- well 56-04 penetrates 109 feet of sand, well 15-52 penetrates 
about 70 feet of sand and well 46-34 penetrates 62 feet of sand. (See 
figure 21 and plate 2.) The sand is thin in places near the Hudson River 
at Glens Falls, but increases to over 100 feet in thickness to the north- 
west. The sand immediately south of the river may vary from 50 to over 
100 feet in thickness while that lying south of Fortsville is reported by 
Heath (1963, p. 13) to be less than 50 feet thick with a probable average 
thickness of about 25 feet. 


Precipitation is the main source of recharge to the aquifer; however, 
influent ephemeral streams may contribute minor quantities of water. 
Ground water is discharged from the aquifer to the Hudson River and 
other streams that are incised below the water table, through springs, and 
by pumping wells. Because the sand is usually underlain by relatively 


- 57 - 



impermeable 
negl igible. 
beneath the 
discharging 
vicinity of 


silt, clay, or shale, downward percolation is probably 
In fact, water-level data from wells finished in bedrock 
sand indicate that deep circulating ground water is 
upward through these relatively impermeable beds in the 
the Hudson River. 


The yield of individual small-diameter wells tapping the sand ranges 
from several gallons per minute to 70 gallons per minute. One 24-inch 
diameter drilled well (54-38, near Glen Lake) that is finished in gravel 
yields 400 gpm. The average yield for lO wells of all types finished in 
the sand aquifer is 67 gpm. 


An annual "safe yield" for the sand aquifer can be calculated by making 
several basic assumptions. Basp.d on physical composition and water-bearing 
characteristics, the sand deposit may be divided into northern and southern 
parts by an east-west 1 ine at Fortsvil1e. The northern section averages 
about 70 feet in thickness and is generally composed of coarser grained 
material than is the southern section, which averages about 25 feet in 
th i c kne s s. 


To calculate the annual 'Isafe yield," that is, the yield at which no 
"mining" or dewatering of the aquifer occurs on an annual basis, the 
following assumptions are made for the northern section: 


(1) Precipitation is the only source of recharge which 
amounts to about 10 inches per year or 
500,000 gpd per square mile. 


(2) The aquifer is completely recharged from mid-fal I 
to mid-spring each year. 


(3) The coefficient of transmissibility 
per foot. 


15,000 gpd 


(4) The coefficient of storage = 0.2. 
(5) Saturated thickness; 40 feet. 


These are not unreasonable assumptions, but perhaps they should be discussed. 


There are three potential sources of recharge available to the aquifer: 
(l) precipitation, (2) influent surface streams, and (3) leakage from 
adjacent aquifers. However, measurements of streamflow in the Lake Champlain- 
Upper Hudson area, indicate that most of the streams are effluent. That is, 
the streams are deriving water from the aquifers rather than contributing 
water to them. Leakage of water from adjacent aquifers also is probably 
insignificant since the sand is generally bordered or underlain by 
relatively impermeable silt, clay, till, or shale and crystalline bedrock. 
The only source of recharge remaining is precipitation which readily 
enters the deposit through its permeable surface. The average annual 
precipitation in the vicinity of Glens Falls is about 40 inches. Studies 
in upstate New York suggest that about 10 inches or an average of about 
500,000 gpd per square mile recharges the sand aquifer from mid-fall to 
mid-spring. 


- 58 - 



(A) Ideal ized vertical section through 4 wells shows the 
cone of depression around a pumped well. 


+-' 0 
Q) 
Q) 
- 
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Q) 
(.) 
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't: 

 
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Land surface 


' A 


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B 


Water level 
_ _ 

r:.'p
m

_ _ _ ___ __ 


Cone of depression 
created by pumping 


50 
150 


150 


120 


90 


60 30 0 30 5060 
Distance from pumped well, in feet 


90100 120 


(8) Trace of the above cone of depression plotted on semi-logarithmic graph paper. 
o 


oLejion_t
f 
ABC - 
I 
, 7' 
::: 
cc . 
ci -/- 
.- 
II ",. 
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co 

 
Q 


20 


24 


28 
1 


2 3 


5 10 20 30 50 100 200 300 500 1000 
Distance from pumped well, in feet 


Figure 23.--Section and graph showing cone of depression and 
drawndown around a pumped well. 


- 59 - 



The coefficients of transmissibility and storage define the water- 
bearing properties of the aquifer. Transmissibil ity is defined as the 
amount of water that can be transmitted under a unit hydraulic gradient 
through a vertical strip of aquifer I foot wide; it is usually expressed 
in gallons per day per foot. The transmissibil ity of this part of the 
aquifer is probably about 15,000 gpd per foot since it is better sorted 
and coarser than the deposit at Saratoga National Historic Park where 
Heath and others (1963, p. 118) determined a value of transmissibi 1 ity of 
11,000 gpd per foot for the sand aquifer. The coefficient of storage is a 
dimensionless number and represents in cubic feet the amount of water that 
is released from storage in 1 cubic foot of aquifer when the head is lowered 
1 foot. The storage coefficient of the deposit at the National Park was 
found to be 0.16. Therefore, assuming greater storage in the northern part 
of the deposit, the coefficient of storage may be sl ightly higher, or about 
0.2. The saturated thickness of the sand is greater than 40 feet in the 
area depicted by figure 23, but it may be less than 40 feet in other parts 
of the deposit. An average figure for saturated thickness is about 
40 feet. 


Provided annual recharge amounts to 500,000 gpd per square mile, then 
500,000 gpd per square mi le or 348 gpm per square mile, can be removed from 
the deposit over a 365-day period without dewatering the aquifer. The 
average yield of 9 small-diameter wells finished in this aquifer is about 
30 gpm. Most of these wells were 2.5 inches in diameter and were not fully 
developed. One well, 24 inches in diameter, yields 400 gpm. It is possible 
that a properly developed screened well 6 inches in diameter will produce 
80 to 90 gpm. If this yield is obtained, then the required number of wells, 
the pumping rate, and the appropriate spacing between them must be deter- 
mined in order to remove 500,000 gpd from 1 square mile of the aquifer. 
By simple arithmetic it is found that four wells pumping at 87 gpm will 
remove 348 gpm. The proper spacing can be determined by using relatively 
simple methods of aquifer analysis developed by Cooper and Jacob (1946) 
and explained below. 


When water is withdrawn from a well in an aquifer, water levels 
become lower in the vicinity of the point of withdrawal and the water table 
assumes the shape of an inverted cone (cone of depression) with the pumped 
well at the center of the cone ((A), fig. 23). The cone gradually expands 
with continued pumping. When the measured drawdown in wells located within 
this cone of depression is plotted on semi log graph paper against their 
distance from the pumped wells, a straight 1 ine is produced ((B), fig. 23). 
By extending this 1 ine to the point of zero drawdown (r o ) the lateral 
extent of the cone of depression for this particular period of pumping is 
determined. The slope of this line is used to determine the transmissibility 
of the aquifer by using the equation 


T = 528Q , 
6s 
and the coefficient of storage is determined by using the equation 
S 0.3 Tt, 
2 . 
(r o ) 


( I ) 


(2) 


- 60 - 



Where: 


T coefficient of transmissibility in gpd per foot 
S coefficient of storage 
Q pumping rate in gpm 
6s drawdown over one log cycle 
t time in days since pumping began 
ro distance from pumped well in feet. 
528Q 
By transposing equation (1) to 6s = --r-'it is evident that the slope ( 6S) 
of the 1 ine in figure 23 (B) is directly proportional to the ratio of Q to T. 
Since T is essentially constant for a given aquifer, Q is the only factor 
affecting the slope of the line. If Q were doubled then the slope of the 
1 ine would become twice as steep, etc. 


By using the assumed values previously shown for this aquifer, one can 
develop a distance-drawdown graph as seen in line (1) of figure 24 by which 
the performance of the aquifer can be predicted. Using the equation 
0.3 Tt 
(ro)2 
and substituting the values of S = 0.2, T = l5,000, and t = 200 days, a value 
of ro can be calculated; that is, the minimum value for r at which there will 
be no drawdown after 200 days. This time is used since 200 days is probably 
the maximum length of time between periods of recharge. After 200 days 
recharge begins and the cone of depression decreases in size. Transposing 
the terms in equation (2) and substituting the above values, it is found that 
ro = 2, 120 feet. 


S 


\ To complete the graph, the slope of the line that wi 11 pass through 
r6= 2,120 feet must be determined. This is done by substituting the assumed 
values into equation (1), and finding 6S = 3.0 feet per log cycle. Using a 
straight 1 ine with this slope drawn through ro = 2,120 feet, the drawdown 
can be predicted at any distance from the pumping well after 200 days of 
continuous pumping. The drawdown and the extent of the cone of depression 
can be predicted for various pumping rates, Q, and times, t, simply byl 
substituting the desired values into equations (1) and (2) and constructing 
graphs simi lar to figure 24. 


Note that in this analysis figure 24 does not indicate the water level 
in the pumped well. The actual drawdown in the pumped well may be over 
twice as great as the predicted drawdown 1 foot from the pumped well. This 
difference is due to head losses at the well screen and in the formation, 
which were not considered when constructing the straight line in figure 24. 
The losses in the formation are due to seasonal decl ine of the water table 
(of perhaps 2 feet, see figure 20) and partial dewatering of the aquifer 
as a result of pumping. These losses cannot be eliminated, but screen 
losses can be minimized by proper well construction and development. 


It is apparent from the above that the cone of depression around each 
well pumping 87 gpm wi II have a radius of 2,120 feet after 200 days of 
pumping. Although the cones will overlap causing additional drawdown of 
about 2 feet in each of the wells, four wells located at the corners of a 
1/2-mi le square (fig. 21) pumping at this rate could remove 500,000 gpd 
from 1 square mile of the aquifer. 


- 61 - 



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- 62 - 


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The annual yield of that part of the aquifer south of Fortsville can 
also be computed using the above method. For this part of the aquifer 
assume that: 


coefficient of transmissibi lity 


10,000 gpd per foot 


coefficient of storage = 0.15 


saturated thickness = 15 feet 


pumping rate = 25 gpm 


well screen -- 5 feet long -- is located at bottom of 
saturated zone. 


Substitute the above values into equations (1) and (2). From the calculated 
values, line (2) can be drawn in figure 24. This 1 ine shows that after 
200 days, this rate of pumping would create about 4.3 feet of drawdown at a 
distance of 1 foot from the pumped well. Since lowering the water level 
below the top of the well screen would increase head loss in the pumped 
well, it is desirable that other head losses (losses at the screen and in 
the formation) do not exceed 5.7 feet (or lower the water level in the 
aquifer below the top of the well screen). 


The graph shows that the cone of depression around a well in this aquifer 
would extend to a radius of 2,000 feet after 200 days of pumping. Therefore, 
the cones of depression around an array of wells located in a square grid 
pattern, 2,000 feet on a side, would completely overlap creating additional 
drawdown in each of the pumping wells. Although this additional drawdown 
would not be sufficient to lower the water level below the top of the well 
screens, this well spacing and pumping rate would remove only half of the 
available ground water -- assuming recharge of 500,000 gpd per square mile. 
If the wells of the array were spaced in a smaller grid pattern 1,000 feet 
on a side, and the pumping rate of each reduced to 12.5 gpm (line (3), 
fig. 24), then 500,000 gpd of ground water per square mile could be removed 
from the aquifer. In this case the overlapping cones of depression would 
cause about 2 feet additional drawdown in each of the pumping wells. 
However, the water levels in the wells would remain above the top of the 
we 11 sc reen s. 


The foregoing computations are based on assumed values thought to be 
representative of an average part of the sand aquifer. It must be 
remembered that constant water-bearing characteristics were used. In 
real ity the water-bearing characteristics vary throughout the deposit. 
For instance, the sands and gravels of the esker probably have trans- 
missibilities over 150,000 gpd per foot in some places, whereas the finer 
sands may have transmissibilities less than 1,000 gpd per foot. Also the 
computed results do not reflect the effects of induced recharge from 
streams, or natural ground-water discharge and evapotranspiration losses 
from the zone of saturation. Thus, the ground water available in various 
parts of the aquifer may be greater or less than the computed amount. 


- 63 - 



Throughout this section consideration has been given to the annual 
safe yield of the aquifer, while consideration of the effects of pumping 
has been largely neglected. Pumping 500,000 gpd per square mile would 
reduce or prevent natural ground-water discharge and surface-water runoff 
to springs and streams. Since some humans, animals, and plants are 
dependent upon this water, the effects of heavy pumping are important and 
must be considered by water managers. 


PLATTSBURGH AREA 


The sandstones and carbonates of the Champlain valley form an artesian 
aquifer in the northeastern part of the study area, extending from Keesville 
30 miles north to the Canadian border. It is bounded on the east by Lake 
Champlain and on the west by the crystal line rocks of the Adirondack 
Mountains. The rocks forming the aquifer are for the most part buried by 
glacial deposits. However, a few small exposures occur in road cuts and 
stream channels and several large exposures of sandstone occur north of 
West Chazy. 


The aquifer dips gently to the east, and a contour map of water levels 
in 40 wells shows that the ground water is moving from west to east; hence, 
the aquifer is being recharged on the eastern slopes of the mountains as 
shown in figures 25 and 26. Information gained from chemical analyses 
indicates the same thing. Analyses of water taken from wel ls 45-54, 13-03, 
and 59-07 which tap the carbonates just west of Valcour Island show that 
the amount of calcium carbonate in the ground water generally increases in 
an easterly (down-dip) direction. This indicates that the time of contact 
between the ground water and the rocks is generally increasing in an 
easterly direction and, therefore, that the water is entering the rocks to 
the west and is moving underground toward the east where it discharges to 
Lake Champlain. 


The sources of recharge to the aquifer system are precipitation, 
leakage from overlying unconsolidated deposits, and water from small 
surface streams. Once water enters the aquifer it moves eastward along 
bedding-plane openings in the sandstone and along both bedding-plane 
openings and solution cavities in the carbonates. The lateral openings 
are apparently more numerous than the vertical ones; thus, the water is 
confined in an artesian system. Trainer and Salvas (l962) studied the 
occurrence of ground water in these same bedrock units in the Massena- 
Waddington area of northern New York. From a detailed map of the 
piezometric surface, they determined that recharge was entering the 
artesian system from water-table aquifers located in tracts between the 
major streams. They also found mounds on the piezometric surface beneath 
many hills indicating that recharge was greater beneath the hills than 
elsewhere nearby. They found that discharge from both shallow and deep 
artesian aquifers was to the larger surface streams. I t seem probable that 
the aquifer of the Plattsburgh area is recharged and discharged in a 
similar manner. 


- 64 - 



EXPLANATION 
--- 
Direction of ground-water flow. 

 
Fault. Directions of displacement 
shown by half-barbed arrows. 


c: 
co 
Q. 
E 
co 
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U 
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--- 


Figure 25.--General west-east vertical section showing the movement 
of ground water through the bedrock artesian aquifer 
of the northern Lake Champlain basin. 


An interesting recharge situation exists at the swamp just west of 
Coopersville in figure 26. The "loop" in the 200-foot contour of the 
piezometric surface offers evidence of recharge from the swamp to the 
aquifer. Flow 1 ines drawn normal to the contours indicate that water is 
flowing radially from the swamp through the aquifer. The owner of well 
54-22, a flowing well near the swamp, reports that heavy rains cause the 
flow of his well to increase and the water to become roily. The rain 
causes an increased head at the swamp, and apparently this is reflected 
in an increased head at well 54-22. The increased head at the well in 
turn causes an increase in the velocity of flow which flushes accumulated 
rust and sediment from the well. 


The lateral movement of ground water seems to be 1 ittle affected by 
faults normal to the direction of flow; however, the close spacing of the 
water-level contours between Plattsburgh and Beekmantown in figure 26 
suggests that less permeable beds, which have been downthrown about 800 
feet on the eastern side of the two faults, probably are restricting the 
movement of the ground water. I t is also 1 ikely that east-west trending 
faults have increased the rock permeability in this direction, thus 
faci 1 itating the movement of ground water along the faults toward Lake 
Champlain. More data are needed to accurately define the effect of faults 
on ground-water movement in the aquifer. 


- 65 - 



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Figure 26.--Hydrologic map of the Plattsburgh area. 


Water discharges from this artesian system mainly through (1) topo- 
graphic Jows and (2) wells. Natural discharge takes place to Lake 
Champlain, possibly to the Saranac and Salmon Rivers which have cut down 
to bedrock, and upward leakage probably takes place into overlying 
unconsolidated deposits where the head in the artesian aquifer is greater 
than the head in the overlying deposit. 


Yields of wells finished in the sandstone part of the aquifer range 
from 2 to 30 gpm and average 15 gpm. Yields of wells finished in the 
carbonate part range from 2 to 200 gpm and average 35 gpm. The wells 
finished in the carbonates are generally deeper than the wells completed 


- 66 - 



in sandstone. Fifty percent of the wells completed in sandstone are less 
than 100 feet deep, whereas only 37 percent of the wells completed in 
carbonate rocks are less than 100 feet deep. 


Trainer and Salvas (1962) determined values of transmissibility for 
the carbonates that ranged in value from about 100 to 68,000 gallons per 
day per foot. By using a form of Darcy's law, Q = TIL, 


where: 


Q quantity of water moving through the aquifer in 
gallons per day, 


T transmissibility of the aquifer in gallons per 
day per foot, 


hydraulic gradient in feet per foot, 


L length of aquifer in feet, 


a crude estimate for ground-water discharge from the aquifer may be 
calculated. For this aquifer assume: 


T = 10,000 gallons per day per foot (an average 
figure from Trainer and Salvas), 


0.0075 (calculated from the average slope of 
piezometric surface in figure 26), 


L = 30 miles = 158,400 feet (measured from figure 26). 


Then Q = 11,000,000 gallons per day. 


Providing our assumptions are correct, this means that about 11 mgd 
(mill ion gallons per day) are moving through the aquifer. Most of this 
water is probably discharged directly to Lake Champlain or indirectly to 
the lake via rivers. Wells completed at the eastern limit of the aquifer 
could probably salvage most of this water. Perhaps more than 11 mgd could 
be salvaged if pumping induced recharge from the lake and streams. 


OTHER AREAS 


In addition to the major ground-water areas discussed previously, 
there are at least three other important ground-water areas in the Lake 
Champlain-Upper Hudson region. These areas are tapped by only a few wells 
since they 1 ie in sparsely populated areas. They are shown in plate I. 
For convenience of discussion they will be referred to as (l) the 
Plattsburgh sand -- the sand and minor sand and gravel deposits located 
immediately south of the city of Plattsburgh, (2) the Bloomingdale sand 
the sands located north and south of Bloomingdale village and east of Lake 
Clear, and (3) the Loon Lake deposit -- the sands and gravels extending 
from the north end of Loon Lake to the south end of Rainbow Lake. These 


- 67 - 



areas are discussed collectively because they have relatively few wells, 
and little is known about the water-bearing characteristics of the deposits. 
However, existing well and geologic data suggest that they are among the 
more signigicant ground-water areas of the study area. 


The Plattsburgh sands extend about as far south as Ausable Chasm and 
approximately 8 miles inland from Lake Champlain. Large outcrops of till 
and bedrock protrude through the sand in several places. The deposit is 
predominately sand with a few small areas of sand and gravel near the 
Saranac River. The sand part is generally composed of very fine- to 
coarse-grained sand which is better sorted in some parts of the deposit 
than in others. Rapid mechanical analyses of sand samples indicate that 
the slightly better sorted sands are located at the higher elevations 
(Denny, 1966, p. 9). The small sand and gravel deposits near the river 
usually consist of a mixture of medium-grained sand to coarse-grained 
gravel. 


The thickness of the Plattsburgh sand ranges from over 100 feet in the 
valley bottoms near Morrisonvi 11e and Harkness to a fraction of an inch 
near its outer limits. At well 46-48 (near South Plattsburgh) the sand is 
reported to be only 6 feet thick and underlain by clay. Near the mouths 
of the Ausable and Little Ausable Rivers the sand is about 100 feet thick. 
Logs of wells drilled into this deposit are included in appendix 6. 


The permeability of a sand deposit depends upon the size, roundness, and 
sorting of the grains as well as the degree of compaction and cementation of 
the deposit. The sand grains at the higher elevations of this deposit are 
generally larger and better sorted than are those at lower elevations. 
Therefore, the former are usually more permeable. However, the sands at 
higher elevations are bel ieved to grade to finer grained material at depth, 
with a corresponding decrease in permeabil ity. This is exempl ified by the 
deposit in the val ley at Harkness. Many driven wells in this valley, 
drawing water from the top layers of medium- and coarse-grained sand, are 
estimated to yield over 20 gpm. But well 07-53 (at Harkness) penetrated 
the coarse-grained surficial sand and entered fine-grained material 
beneath. This well was dri lled to a depth of 142 feet before encountering 
another coarse-grained water-bearing sand. The reported yield of this well 
is only 15 gpm. In areas such as this, deep dril led wells seem uneconomical, 
especially when shal low wells produce sufficient water. Properly developed 
screened wells finished in the top part of the sand will probably yield 
50 gpm or more. Screened drilled wells completed in the sand and gravel 
parts of the deposit may yield over 100 gpm. 


The Bloomingdale sands include those located north and south of 
Bloomingdale vi Ilage and those east of Lake Clear. The high base flow of 
Sumner Brook at Bloomingdale village and the surficial geology suggest that 
the sand deposits north of the village and east of Lake Clear are good 
aquifers. These deposits charcteristical1y form areas of low rolling 
reI ief. Swamps commonly occur along the streams and in surface depressions. 
The deposits range from fine- to coarse-grained sand, but most of the 
deposits are well sorted, medium-grained sand. That part of the deposit 
along the Saranac River south of Bloomingdale is of about the same 


- 68 - 



composition. However, it contains a considerable amount of gravel within 
the esker ridge which traverses the deposit. This ridge 1 ies on the west 
side of the highway running south from Bloomingdale. 


The thickness of the sand deposits is not well known. However, well 
49-12 near Lake Clear is 42 feet deep, ending in sand. Outcrops of bed- 
rock suggest a thinning of the sand toward the outer 1 imits of this 
deposit. No thickness information is available for the sand north of 
Bloomingdale, but the topography suggests that it may not be as thick as 
the sand near Lake Clear. The deposit south of Bloomingdale is at least 
91 feet thick at well 28-52. 


The main source of recharge to these deposits is precipitation, while 
ground-water discharge occurs to surface springs and streams. Base-flow 
measurements of Sumner Brook at Bloomingdale indicate that its drainage 
area has a high rate of runoff suring summer months. Of nine measurements 
made on the brook, the lowest value was 24.6 cfs on July 26, 1965. This 
high rate of base-flow runoff (0.45 cfs per square mile as compared to an 
average of 0.19 cfs per square mile for other streams in the study area) 
indicates a large amount of ground-water storage in the drainage basin. 
Assuming that 75 percent of this water is discharging from the sand 
deposits and that 24.6 cfs is the lowest annual flow of the brook, then 
18.4 cfs or about l2,000,000 gpd may approximate the amount of ground 
water that could be developed from the sand deposits upstream from 
Bloomingdale. The yield of the deposit south of Bloomingdale is probably 
less than this amount. However, this deposit is hydraulically connected 
to the Saranac River. Therefore, depending on the degree of this 
connection, infiltration from the river may substantially increase the 
annual yield of the aquifer. 


Reported yields are available for only two wells that are completed 
in the Bloomingdale sands. One well, 49-12, yielding 15 gpm, is completed 
in the sand at Lake Clear; the second well, 28-52, yielding 50 gpm, is 
completed in a sand and gravel layer in the deposit south of Bloomingdale. 
The presence of sand and gravel and a saturated thickness of over 70 feet 
at the latter makes possible higher yielding wells. If screened wells 
were used, much higher well yields would be possible from all of the 
Bloomingdale sands. 


The Loon Lake deposit 1 ies between Loon Lake and Rainbow Lake in 
Frankl in County. It is 9 mi les long and over 1 mile wide in most places. 
Little well data are available in the sparsely populated area of the 
deposit. However, existing well and geologic data suggest that this 
deposit may be the best of all the major aquifers. Hills composed of 
very coarse rounded gravel overlying coarse-grained sand form the north 
end of the deposit at Loon Lake. About 3 mi les southward, the gravel 
hi lIs become smaller and gradually disappear, exposing the underlying 
medium- to coarse-grained sand. This sand forms a "plain" which extends 
to the south end of Rainbow Lake. The continuity of the plain is 
disrupted by a north-south trending esker ridge of sand and gravel, and 
numerous depressions, commonly called "kettles." Many of these kettles 
near the lakes and esker contain small ponds. 


- 69 - 



The thickness of thi s deposi tis not preci sely known. However, it 
is reported to persist to at least a depth of 40 feet at Onchiota, and well 
26-25 is reported to have penetrated 130 feet of sand before encountering 
sand and gravel. The total thickness of the unconsol idated deposits at 
well 43-29 is about 100 feet; well 40-39 is 215 feet deep, ending in gravel. 
Because the saturated thickness at this well is about 200 feet, a shallower 
well could have been constructed provided a well screen had been used. 


Abundant recharge is available to this aquifer through infiltration of 
precipitation and nearby surface waters. Since the northern part of the 
aquifer is composed of coarse gravel, perhaps greater amounts of recharge 
enter there. Thus, more ground water may be available in that area. 


MINOR GROUND-WATER AREAS 


The minor ground-water areas are those areas smaller than 10 square 
miles that yield or could potentially yield large quantities of water. A 
typical study of a minor ground-water area at Crown Point Center, N. Y. 
was made by the writers and other personnel of the u.s. Geological Survey. 
(See plate 1 for location of the area.) Many of the methods used in this 
study could be used in finding and analyzing aquifers in other minor 
ground-water areas. The objective of the study was to locate an additional 
ground-water supply of 350 gpm for expansion of the facil ities at the Crown 
Point Fish Hatchery. 


To find the local aquifer of the greatest water-bearing potential, it 
was first necessary to define the hydrology and geology of the area 
surrounding the hatchery. This was done by mapping the geology as seen 
in figure 27, inventorying wells and springs as shown in figure 28, 
measuring streamflow, digging test pits, and using methods of seismic 
investigation. Then, based on the results of these data, the best aquifer 
nearest the hatchery was chosen and seven test wells were drilled. Of the 
wells drilled only wells 47-44.1,47-44.2, and 47-45 penetrated the 
permeable water-bearing zone shown in figure 29. (The logs for the wells 
are given in appendix 6.) 


To determine the water-bearing characteristics of the permeable zone 
and its annual yield, an 8-hour aquifer test was made. Well 47-44.2 was 
pumped at a constant rate of 105 gpm while drawdown was observed in the 
other wells. The drawdown data were then analyzed by a method simi lar to 
that explained in the section on "Glens Falls Area." The analysis showed 
that the coefficients of transmissibil ity and storage were about 57,000 
gpd per foot and 0.26, respectively (I. H. Kantrowitz, written commun., 
1967), but that additional drawdown was being caused by an "impermeable" 
boundary located about 50 feet from the pumped well. The boundary had, 
essentially, the same effect on drawdown as an overlapping cone of 
depression created by an imaginary second well 100 feet away pumping at 
105 gpm. Further analysis showed that the well was capable of yielding 
200 gpm for short periods of time. However
 the continuous yield over a 
period of no recharge (assumed to be 200 days) was determined to be 
about 50 gpm. This reduced rate is necessary for continuous long-term 


- 70 - 



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- 71 - 



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- 72 - 



A 
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Figure 29.--Hydrogeologic section through test wells 48-48,47-45, 
47-44.2, and 46-42 which are shown in figure 28. 


pumping because of the small areal extent of the aquifer, the impermeable 
boundary effects (fig. 29), and the limited amount of recharge reaching the 
aquifer from precipitation. Perhaps with natural or induced recharge from 
local streams, the long-term pumping rate could be increased to 100 gpm or 
more. 


There are many other areas containing small aquifers that will yield 
50 to 100 gpm or more to properly developed drilled wells. Many of these 
smaller aquifers are formed by eskers -- long narrow deposits of sand and 
gravel that usually appear as sinuous ridges 200 to 400 feet wide at the 
land surface. 


- 73 - 



Two of the most prominent eskers can be seen in plate 1. One begins 
near Chazy and ends about 7 mi1es north of the city of Plattsburgh; the 
other begins near Pottersville and ends about 4 miles south of Chestertown. 
Both are about 10 miles long. The thickness of the eskers varies. The one 
north of Plattsburgh is 48 feet thick at well 21-58, possibly 114 feet 
thick at we11 04-1l, and it is estimated by a local we11 driller to be 
about 60 feet thick at well 33-03 in Ingraham village. The deposit between 
Pottersvi11e and Chestertown is at least 88 feet thick at well 56-59 at 
Chestertown and perhaps 146 thick at well 3l-10, 3 miles south of Chestertown. 
A third we11, l3-26, about 2 miles south of Pottersville penetrates gravel 
beneath 83 feet of c1ay and sand. This gravel suggests that the esker once 
extended to that depth but has since been partially eroded and buried by lake 
deposits. 


Other smaller eskers are located near the vi 11ages of Warrensburg, North 
Creek, and Schroon Lake. Wel J 12-34 indicates that the deposit at Warrensburg 
is at least 50 feet thick. The thickness of the others is unknown. 


The reported yields of individual wells completed in the esker aquifers 
vary from 20 gpm at partially developed wells to 390 gpm at fu11y developed 
ones. 


Besides the esker deposits there are other small sand or sand and gravel 
deposits which may yield 50 to 100 gpm or more to properly developed we11s. 
These are generally smal1 deposits adjacent to bodies of surface water and 
are hydraul ically connected to them. Although these deposits usually 
discharge ground water to the bodies of surface water, sustained heavy 
pumping from wells completed in them often depends upon induced recharge 
from the surface-water source. Most of these deposits are found along rivers 
and lakes in the upper Hudson basin. Fewer occur along the rivers of the 
Lake Champlain basin because many of the valleys are underlain by fine- 
grained sand, silt, or clay. 


- 74 - 



WATER QUALITY 


For many water needs, the quantity available from a given body of water 
may be sufficient at all times. Yet, the chemical quality of this water may 
present obstacles to its use. For instance manganese (Mn), in concentrations 
of about 0.15 ppm (parts per million) or greater, may stain laundry brown 
and adversely affect the taste of beverages, including coffee and tea. 
Si lica (Si0 2 ) forms a hard scale in boilers when present in appreciable 
quantities. Because of problems like these, it is important to consider not 
only the quantities of water available in the study area, but also the 
quality of that water. 


The chemical qual ity of a particular water sample from an aquifer or a 
stream or a lake depends on its history. As water moves first through the 
atmosphere, then either over or under the ground to a stream or lake, it 
partially dissolves materials with which it comes in contact. Even in the 
atmosphere, water contains at least some dissolved material, which for the 
Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region might typically amount to 12 ppm. 


The amount of material which water will dissolve depends principally 
on the solubi lity of the material, the period of time of contact with the 
material, and the area of contact per unit volume of water. Because 
ground waters are in intimate contact with soluble rock materials for long 
periods of time, they are more highly mineralized than overland runoff, 
which passes quickly over the ground with little opportunity to dissolve 
minerals. 


Water in streams is a mixture of overland runoff and ground-water 
runoff, although at different times or places, the entire flow may be from 
either source alone. Thus, during flood stages, when most of the water in 
streams is composed of overland runoff, dissolved solids concentrations 
are much lower than during base-flow periods, when ground water makes up 
the entire flow. 


Generally, the chemical quality of the waters of the Lake Champlain- 
Upper Hudson region is good to excel1ent. That is, the waters in most 
areas are suitable for most purposes and require little or no treatment 
(for drinking suppl ies, however, even the best water should be chlorinated 
if there is danger of bacterial pollution). Appendices 7 and 8 list the 
results of several hundred chemical analyses of surface and ground waters. 
Most of these were made from samples collected between July 1966 and 
June 1967. 


AREAL VARIATIONS 


Because geology controls water quality to a large extent, areal 
variations in geology will be reflected in areal variations in water 
quality. Broadly speaking, the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region may 
be divided into two geologic areas -- those underlain by crystalline 


- 75 - 



formations and those underlain by sedimentary formations. Waters from the 
crystall ine formations of the study area generally contain less dissolved 
materials than waters from sedimentary formations. The main reason for 
this is that the crystal 1 ine rocks, with few exceptions, are less soluble 
than the sedimentary rocks. 


The areal variations of six important chemical constituents or 
properties are shown in figures 30 and 31. Figure 31 shows variations in 
ground-water quality and figure 30 shows variations for surface-water 
qual ity for calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), total hardness, alkalinity 
(as HC0 3 ), total dissolved solids, and sulfate (S04). The importance of 
these and other chemical constituents to water users is discussed in table 
4 and recommended limiting concentrations for various uses are shown in 
table 5. 


The control of ground-water quality over surface-water qua1ity has 
been mentioned. For instance, it is expected that streams f10wing through 
areas whose ground waters are relatively high in dissolved s01ids will also 
be high in dissolved sol ids. However, it is not always valid to assume 
that the chemical quality of a stream at the point of collection reflects 
the rock types in that immediate vicinity. For example, the Hudson River 
below the mouth of the Sacandaga River flows through an area underlain by 
sedimentary formations; yet, the water quality there largely reflects the 
crystalline formations in the Hudson River basin upstream from the 
Sacandaga River. Table 6 summarizes these variations by giving ranges 
for major chemical constituents or properties for surface and ground waters, 
according to geologic areas. These ranges represent the extreme values 
found among the samples collected and are not likely to be met by the 
average water user. Nonetheless, these values enable the user to get a 
"handle" on the total range of the water quality of the region. The 
individual analyses compi led in Appendices 7 and 8 should be consulted 
if it is desired to learn more about the water quality of a particular 
area. A few words about water temperatures are in order at this point. 
It is a significant fact that while surface-water temperatures rise and 
fall in response to daily changes in air temperatures, ground-water 
temperatures remain almost constant with time and approximate mean annua1 
air temperatures. Most wells in the Lake Champ1ain-Upper Hudson region 
yield water which is at all times between 45 0 and 50 0 F. In this respect, 
ground water is desirable for water supplies and, where suitable in other 
ways, for industrial co01ing processes. 


WATER-QUALITY PROBLEMS 


In spite of the overall excel1ent quality of the waters of the Lake 
Champlain-Upper Hudson region, quality problems do exist in some areas. 
Hardness, which may be defined as the soap-consuming property of water, 
is sometimes a problem in surface and ground waters east of Glens Falls 
and the Champlain Barge Canal and a1so in the northern part of the Lake 
Champlain area. The total hardness maps of figures 30 and 3l give an 
idea of the extent and magnitude of this problem. In addition, wells 
along the Saranac River and the Hudson River valleys often yield moderately 
hard to hard water. 


- 76 - 



Calcium and magnesium, which cause most of the hardness of water, also 
contribute to the formation of a hard scale in boilers when combined with 
bicarbonate (HCOs). This problem often is found along with hardness. 


As may be seen from figures 30 and 31, large sections of the Lake 
Champlain-Upper Hudson region are free from water-quality problems, 
particularly in those parts of the Adirondack Mountains underlain by 
crystal line rocks. Generally, qual ity problems are confined to the 
eastern and northern parts of the study area except where pollution is 
present. 


In addition to the problems just discussed, there are others which, 
although troublesome, affect only small areas or occur only in unusual 
circumstances. Water containing iron, which in concentrations greater 
than 0.1 ppm may stain laundry and adversely affect the taste of beverages, 
is sometimes a problem in wells completed in sandstone or deep in uncon- 
solidated valley deposits. Hydrogen sulfide gas, objectionable because of 
its rotten-egg smell, is sometimes present in ground water from the lower 
part of the carbonate unit where gypsum sometimes occurs. Hydrogen 
sulfide is probably formed in these places by bacterial action on 
dissolved gypsum in the ground water (Hem, 1959, p. l03, 223). In some 
very small areas, ground waters commonly exceed the 500 ppm recommended 
1 imit for drinking water (U.S. Publ ic Health Service 1962, p. 7). However, 
this 1 imit is based mainly on taste and, in practice, waters much higher 
in dissolved sol ids are sometimes used if the water is suitable in other 
respects. 


A unique situation exists in the northern part of the Lake Champlain 
basin near the Canadian border. About 10,000 years ago the sea covered 
this area. When it receded, some sea water was left in the ground. It is 
believed that part of this has not yet been flushed, and a few wells high 
in chloride and other constituents of sea water are still found there. 
Other quality problems which might occur are mentioned in table 4. 


- 77 - 



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Table 4 


Source or cause and significance of dissolved mineral 
constituents and properties of water 


Cons t i tuent 
or 
property 
Silica (Si0 2 ) 


I ron (Fe) 


Manganese (Mn) 


Calcium (Ca), 
Magnes i um (Mg) 


Sod i um (Na) 


Bicarbonate (HC03) 
Carbonate (C0 3 ) 


Sulfate (S04) 


Chloride (CI) 


Fluoride (F) 


Nit rate (N0 3 ) 


Dissolved solids 
(residue on 
evaporation) 


Hardness as CaC0 3 


Spec i f i c 
conduc tance 


pH 


Color 


Turbidity 


A I ky I benzene 
su Ifona te (ABS) 


Source or cause 


Dissolved from practically all rocks 
and so i Is. 


Di ssolved from practically all rocks 
and soi Is. Found in some industrial 
wastes. Can be corroded from iron 
pipes, pumps and other equ i pment. 


Di ssolved from some rocks, soi I s, and 
lake bottom sediments. Sources 
associated with those of iron. 


Di ssolved from practically all soi 1 s 
and rocks, but especially from 
1 imestone, dolomi te, and gypsum. 


Dissolved from practically all rocks 
and soils. Found in industrial 
wastes and sewage. 


Action of carbon dioxide in water on 
carbonate cementing material and 
rocks, such as I imestone and 
do lomi te. 


Di ssolved from rocks and soi Is 
containing gypsum, sulfides, and 
other sulfur compounds. May be 
derived from industrial wastes, 
both 1 iquid and atmospheric. 


Dissolved from rocks and soi Is. 
Present in sewage and industrial 
wastes. 


Dissolved in small to minute quantities 
from most rocks and soi Is. Added to 
many waters by fluoridation of public 
suppl ies. 


Decay i ng organ i c matter, sewage, 
fertilizers and nitrates in soils. 


Chiefly minerai constituents di ssolved 
f rom rocks and so i Is. I nc I udes some 
water of crystal 1 ization. 


In most waters nearly all hardness due 
to ca I c i um and magnes i um. 


Mineral content of the water. 


Hydrogen ion concentration. 


Decaying vegetation; peat, leaves, 
roots and other organ i c substances, 
industrial wastes and sewage and 
certain minerals. 


Suspended and colloidal matter. 
Sources can be soi I erosion, 
industrial wastes, micro-organisms. 


Synthetic detergents in domestic and 
industrial wastes. 


1/ u.s. Public Health Service (1962). 


- 82 


S i q n i f i can ce 
Together wi th calcium and magnesium, si 1 ica forms a low- 
heat conducting hard glassy scale in boi lers and turbines. 
Si I ica inhibits deterioration of zeol ite-type water soft- 
eners and corrosion of iron pipes by soft water. 


More than 0.1 ppm often precipitates on exposure to air, 
causing turbidity, staining and tastes and colors which 
are objectionable in food, beverage, texti Ie processes 
and ice manufacture as well as causing problems in 
domestic use such as staining plumbing fixtures and 
laundry. Federal drinking-water standards recommend a 
maximum of 0.3 ppm in finished supply. 1/ 


Same objectionable features as iron. Causes dark brown 
or black stains. Federal drinking-water standards 
recommend a maximum concentration of 0.05 ppm. 1/ 
Manganese removal associated wi th those of i ron-but more 
difficult and generally less complete. 


Causes most of the hardness and scale-forming properties 
of water; detergent consuming (see hardness). Water low in 
calcium and magnesium desi red in electroplating, tanning, 
dyeing, and in texti Ie manufacturing. Small amounts 
desi rable to prevent corrosion. 


Mo re than 50 ppm sod i um and potass i um in the presence of 
suspended matter causes foam in boi lers which accelerates 
scale formation and corrosion. More than 65 ppm of 
sodium car cause problems in ice manufacture. (Durfor 
and Becke r, I 964a , p. 17) 


Produces alkalinity. On heating in the presence of 
calcium and magnesium can form scales in pipes and 
release corrosive carbon-dioxide gas. Aid in coagulation 
for the removal of suspended matter from water. 


Sulfate in water containing calcium forms hard scale in 
steam boilers. In large amounts, sulfate in combination 
wi th other ions gives bitter taste to water. Some 
calcium sulfate is considered beneficial in brewing 
processes. Federal drinking-water standards recommend 
that the sulfate content should not exceed 250 ppm. 1/ 


Some people can detect salty taste in concentrations 
exceeding 100 ppm. In large quanti ties increases the 
corrosiveness of water. Federal drinking-water standards 
recommend a maximum concentration of 250 ppm. 1/ 
Present avai lable treatrrent methods not generally 
economi ca I for most uses. 


Fluoride concentrations of small magn I tude have 
beneficial effect on the structure and resistence 
to decay of chi Idren' s teeth. Fluoride in excess 
of 8.0 pp causes pronounced mottl ing and 
disfiguration of teeth. 1/ 


Small amounts of nitrate help reduce cracking of high- 
pressure boi ler steel. I t encourages growth of algae 
and other organi sms which produce undesi rable taste and 
odors. Federal drinking-water standards recommend a 
maximum concentration of 45 ppm 1/; concentrations in 
excess of this I imit are suspected as cause of 
methemoglobinemia in infants. 


Federal drinking-water standards recommend maximum of 
500 ppm. 1/ Waters containing more than 1,000 ppm of 
dissolved-solids are unsuitable for many purposes. 


Consumes soap and synthetic detergents. Although less 
of a factor with synthetic detergents than with soap, 
it is sti11 economical to soften hard waters (Aultman, 
1958) . 


Guide to mineral content. It is a measure of the 
capacity of the water to conduct a current of electri- 
city, and varies with the concentration and degree of 
ionization of the different minerals in solution. 


A pH of 7.0 indicates neutral ity of a solution. Values 
higher than 7.0 denote increased alkal inity; values 
lower than 7.0 indicate increased acidity. Corrosive- 
ness of water genera 11 y increased wi th decreas i ng pH, 
but excessively alkal ine waters may also attack metals. 


Water for domestic and some industrial USeS should be 
free from perceptible color. Color in water is 
obj ec t i onab lei n food and beverage process i ng and many 
manufacturi ng processes. 


Turbid water aesthetically objectionable. Also, object- 
ionable in many industrial processes; genera11y removed 
by sedimentation, clarification or filtration. 


Causestastes and odors and causes foam on streams and in 
treatment plants. Federal drinking-water standards 
recommend a 1 imit of 0.5 ppm. 1/ Treatment somewhat 
d i ff i cu I t and generally incomplete. 



Table 5 


Recommended maximum concentrations, in parts per million, 
of major chemical constituents of water for industrial, domestic, and agricultural useso' 


Man- Cal- Mag- Po- Bicar- Ni- Fluo- Dissolved 
Use Silica Iron ga- cium ne- Sodium tas- bonate trate Sulfate Chloride ride solids Hardness 
(Si0 2 ) (Fe) nese (Ca) sium (Na) sium (HC0 3 ) (N0 3 ) ( S0 4) (Cl) (F) (residue (as CaCO 3) 
(Mn) (Mg) (K) at 180°C) 
Domest i c -- 0.30 0.05 30- 125- 10 1,000- -- LIS 250 250 0.2- 500 500 
I 50 500 2,000 1.2 
Industrial I 
Ai r cond i t i on i ng -- -- .50 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 50 
Bo i ler feed water 
0-150 (ps i) 40 -- -- -- -- 50 -- -- -- -- -- SOD- 80 
3, 000 
/ 
150-250 (ps i) 20 -- -- -- -- 50 -- -- -- -- -- SOD- 40 
2,500 
/ 
250-400 (ps i) 5 I -- -- -- -- 50 -- -- -- -- -- 100- 
I 1,500 
/ 10 
ove r 400 (ps i) I I -- -- -- -- 50 -- -- -- -- -- 50 Y 2 
Brewing and distilling 50 .10- .10 100- 30 -- -- 75- 30 100- 
/ 60- 1.0 500- 200- 
1.0 500 150 500 100 1,000 300 
Cann i ng and freezing -- .20 .20 -- -- -- -- i -- -- -- I ,000- s/ 1.0 850 so- 
I 1,500 85 
Carbonate beverages -- .10- .20 -- -- -- -- 3D- -- 250 250 .2- 850 200- 
2.0 .20 170 1.0 250 
Photograph i c -- .10 -- 9-./ -- -- -- -- -- 100 
/ 25 10 -- 200 
process i ng 
Food equ i pment, -- .20 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 250 1.0 850 10 
wash i ng 
Food process i ng, -- .20 .20 -- -- -- -- 3D- -- -- -- 1.0 850 10- 
genera 1 250 250 
Ice manufacturing -- -- .20 -- -- 65 -- -- -- -- 300 Y 1.0 170- -- 
1,300 
Clear plastic -- -- .02 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 200 -- 
manufacturi ng 
Paper manufacturing 
Fine pape r 20 I .10 .05 -- -- -- -- 45- -- -- -- -- 200 100 
75 
K ra f t paper bleached 50 .20 .10 -- -- -- -- 75 -- -- -- -- 300 100 
K ra ft paper 100 1.0 .50 -- -- -- -- ISO -- -- 200 -- 500 200 
unb 1 eached 
Soda and su If a te 20 .10 .05 20 12 -- -- 75 -- -- 75 -- 250 100 
pape r 
Ground wood pul p 50 .30 .50 -- -- -- -- ISO -- -- 75 -- 500 200 
Rayon manufacturing -- 0- .03 -- -- -- -- 75 -- -- -- -- 100- 8- 
.05 200 55 
Text i 1 e manufactur i ng -- .10- .25 10 5 -- -- -- -- 100 100 -- -- 0- 
1.0 50 
Launder i ng -- .20 -- 0 -- -- -- 60 -- -- -- -- -- o- 
LD 50 
Tann i ng processes -- .10 .20 -- -- -- -- 135 -- -- -- -- -- 50- 
2.0 135 
Dai ry wash waters -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 60 30 -- 850 -- 
Stee 1 manufacturing -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 175 -- -- 50 
Agricultural e 
Irrigation 10- -- .50- -- 24 100- -- --- -- 200- 100 10 700 -- 
50 200 500 
Livestock -- -- 10V 1,000 500 2, 000 -- 170 2, 700 500 1,500 1.0 2,500 -- 
Fi sh and 0 ther -- I- ]/ 1.0 300- -- -- -- -- -- -- 400- 1.5 2,500 -- 
aquat i c 1 ife 2 1,000 2,000 


.!! Various chemical s themselves may not have harmful effects at certain concentrations; however, when placed In combination WI th other 
minerals they may produce detrimental effects. Hence, many limiting concentrations are given as ranges rather than as simple values. 
U.S. Public Health Service (1962), McKee and Wolf (1963) or Durfor and Becker (1964) should be consulted if there is any question as 
to the suitability of a given water for a given purpose. Table 4 of this report gives supplementary information about sources or 
causes and significance of chemical consti tuents. 
a/ Depends upon design of boi ler. 
b/ As Ca 2 S04 
c/ As NaCI. 
d/ See hardness. 

/ Varies wi th plant species. 
7/ Varies wi th type of 1 ivestock. 
2/ Depend s upon pH of wa te r. 


- 83 



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-INI 



RECOMMENDATIONS 


The study of the water resources of the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson 
region described in this report represents a good first look at water in 
the area. The information presented is adequate for regional planning 
studies of a general nature or for the initial phases of detailed studies 
involving specific sites or small areas. 


Future studies wi 11 need to go beyond what has been presented here. 
With respect to surface water, desirable features of future studies should 
include: 


1) definition of the places and patterns of regulation of 
surface waters. 


2) expansion of the surface-water data collection network to 
provide more basic data (especially for small drainage 
areas) for use in interpretative studies. 


3) development of better regional expressions of streamflow 
characteri sties. 


Extension of ground-water work in the future should include: 


1) mapping of the surficial geology of many areas in greater detail. 


2) more complete definition of the thickness and water-bearing 
characteristics of the unconsolidated aquifers. 


3) investigation of the effect of faults on the occurrence and 
movement of ground water in 


a) the sedimentary rocks of the northern parts of the 
Lake Champlain basin and, 
b) the crystalline rocks of the Adirondack Mountains. 


Water quality work needed in the future includes: 


1) more complete definition of both the areal and time variations 
of surface- and ground-water quality. 


2) investigation of sediment problems with respect to sources 
and amounts. 


- 85 - 



SELECTED REFERENCES 


Arnow, T., 1951, The ground-water resources of Fulton County, New York : 
New York Water Power and Control Comm. Bull. GW-24, 41 p. 


Carlisle, F. J., and others, 1958, Soil survey of Franklin County, 
New York : U.S. Dept. of Agr., Soil Survey sere 1952, no. I, 75 p. 


Cooper, H. H., Jr., and Jacob, C. E., 1946, A generalized graphical 
method of evaluating formation constants and summarizing well-field 
history: Am. Geophys. Union Trans., v. 27, p. 526-534. 


Cross, W. P., 1963, Low-flow frequencies and storage requirements for 
selected Ohio streams : State of Ohio, Dept. of Nat. Resources, 
Div. of Water, Bull. 37,66 p. 


Cushman, R. V., 1953, The ground-water resources of Washington County , 
New York : New York Water Power and Control Comm. Bull. GW-33, 65 p. 


Dalrymple, T., 1960, Flood-frequency analysis : U.S. Geol. Survey Water- 
Supply Paper 1543-A, 80 p. 


Denny, C. S., 1966, Surficial geology of the Plattsburgh area : The 
Empire State Geogram, New York State Education Dept., v. 4, no. 3, 
p. 6-10. 


Durfor, C. N., and Becker, E., 1962, Public water supplies of the 
100 largest cities in the United States : U.S. Geol. Survey Water- 
Supply Paper 1812, 364 p. 


Edward E. Johnson, Inc., 1966, Ground water and wells : St. Paul, 
Minnesota, Edward E. Johnson, Inc., 440 p. 


Feuer, R., and others, 1955, Soil association map of Essex County, 
New York, 1955 : Soil Assoc. Leaflet 4, New York State CoIl. of Agr., 
Cornell Univ. 


Feuer, R., and Johnsgard, G. A., 1956, Soil association map of Washington 
County, New York, 1956 : Soil Assoc. Leaflet 6, New York State CoIl. 
of Agr., Cornell Univ. 


Fisher, D. W., 1968, The geology of the Plattsburgh-Rouses Point quadrangles, 
New York - Vermont : New York State Mus. and Sci. Service, 
Map and Chart Sere no. 10. 


- 86 - 



Fisher, D. W. 
 and others, 1962, Geologic map of New York, 1961 : New York 
State Mus. and Sci. Service, Map and Chart Sere no. 5. 


Flach, K., and others, 1959, Soil association map of Clinton County, 
New York, 1959 : Soil Assoc. Leaflet 8, New York State CoIl. of Agr., 
Cornell Univ. 


Heath, R. C., Hack, F. K., and Tannenbaum, J. A., 1963, Ground-water 
studies in Saratoga County, New York: New York Water Resources 
Comm. Bull. GW-49, 128 p. 


Hem, J. D., 1959, Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics 
of natural water : U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1473, 269 p. 


Johnston, R. H., 1964, Ground water in the Niagara Falls Area, New York : 
New York Water Resources Comm. Bull. GW-53 , p. 18-37. 


Knox, C. E., and Nordenson, T. J., 1951, Average annual runoff and 
precipitation in the New England-New York area : U.S. Geol. Survey 
Hydrol. Atlas 7. 


McKee, J. E., and Wolf, H. W., 1963, Water-quality criteria : The Resources 
Agency of California State Water Quality Control Bd., 2nd ed. t pub. 
no.3-A, 548 p. 


Robison, F. L., 1961, Floods in New York, magnitude and frequency : 
U.S. Geol. Survey Circ. 454, 10 p. 


Searcy, J. K., 1959, Flow-duration curves : U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply 
Paper 1542-A, 33 p. 


Trainer, F. W., and Salvas, E. H., 1962, Ground-water resources of the 
Hassena-Waddington area, St. Lawrence County, New York : New York 
Water Resources Comm. Bull. GW-47, 227 p. 


U.S. Public Health Service, 1962, Drinking water standards : 
Public Health Service pub. no. 956, 61 p. 


- 87 - 



Appendix 1 


Compilation of streamflow characteristics at long-term gaging 
stations in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region 


LAKE CHAMPLA I N BAS IN 


4-2715. Great Chazy River at Perry Mil1s. N.Y. 
LOCATION .--Lat 45°00'00", long 73°30'05", on left bank 500 ft upstream from highway bridge at Perry Mi 11 s, Clinton CountY', 
and 7 1/2 miles upstream from Corbeau Creek. 
DRAINAGE AREA. --247 sq mi 0 
AVERAGE 0ISCHARGE .--38 years, 261 cfs. 
RECORDS AVAILABLE .--Septo 1928 to Sept. 1966. 
EXTREMES OF RECORO .--Maximum discharge, 6,000 cfs April 7, 1937 (gage height, 9.74 ft) minimum discharge, about 008 cfs 
Septamber 18 , 1932 . 
REMARKS. --Oiurnal fluctuation at low and medium flow by sa..ml II immediately upstream. Occasional regulation by Chazy Lake. 


Per i od 
(Consecut I ve 
da s 
1 
7 
3D 
90 


Recurrence interval 
Years) 
10 
20 
3D 


120 cfs 
1 DO 
15 200 
17,000 


4-2735. Saranac River at Plattsburqh, N, Y. 
LOCATION . -- Lat 44°40'50", long 73°28'20", on right bank at Plattsburgh, Clinton County, 60u ft downstream from Imperial ?aper 
and Color Corp. dam , 3 mi les upstream from mouth, and 5 1/2 miles downstream from Mead Brook. 
DRAINAGE AREA. -- 608 sq mi. 
AVERAGE OISCHARGE .-- 50 years, 812 cfs. 
RECORDS AVAILABLE. -- March 1903 to Sept. 1930; Oct. 1943 to Sept. 1966. 
EXTREMES OF RECORD .-.jo\aximum discharge, 11,500 cfs Apr. 8, 1928; minimum dally, 10 cfs July 5, 1965. 


REMARKS. -- Considerable diurnal fluctuation caused by power and Industrial operations. Slight regulation by storage In Upper 
and Lower Saranac Lakes and elsewhere. City of Plattsburgh diverts about 10.0 cfs for water supply from upstream points. 
About 1 cfs inversion from Great Chazy River basin for water supply of State Institutions at Dannemora. 


Magn i tude and frequency of 
f904
jo hi r
4;

' w



d 

rs. 
Discharge, 
recu rrence 
2 


Period 
(Con secut i ve 
da s 
1 
7 
30 


Magn i tude and frequency of 
7903

9:
941.

 
'

t

 years. 
Discharge, in cfs, for indicated 
recurrence interval in ears 
2 5 10 20 3D 
o 5 3 
270 220 190 170 I 0 
2 0 2 0 


Per iod 
(Consecutive 
da s 
I 
7 
3D 
90 


4-2740, West Branch Ausable River near Lake Placid. N.Y. 


LOCATION .-- Lat 44°18'40", long 73°55'00", on right bank 4 mi les northeast of Lake Placid, Essex County, and 4 miles downstream 
f rom Lake PI ael d Out 1 et. 
DRAINAGE AREA. --116 sq mi. 
AVERAGE 01 SCHARGE .-- 47 years (1919-66), 214 cfs. 
RECORDS AVAILABLE. -- June 1916 to Dec. 1917, July 1919 to Sept. 1966. 
EXTREMES OF RECORD. --Maximum discharge, 10,800 cfs Sept, 22, 1938 (gage height, 12.20 ft); minimum daily, 7.2 cfs July 29, 1920. 


REMARKS. --Diurnal fluctuation at low and medium flow caused by mll1 upstream from station. 


Period 
(Consecu t i ve 
da s 
1 
7 
3D 
90 


Period 
( Con secut i ve 
da s 


Hagn I tude and frequency of 
annua I low f low, based on 
1920-63 cl imatic years. 
Discharge, in cfs, for indicated 
recurrence Interval in ears 
2 5 10 20 30 


7 
3D 


12 
28 


Recu rrence In te rva 1 
Years) 
10 
20 
3D 


Within-year storage, in cfs-days, required to maintain 
the fol lowing draft rates, in cfs, based on 
1920-63 c1 imatic ears. 
40 cf s 60 cf s 


222 
292 


- 88 - 



Appendix 1 


Compilation of streamflow characteristics at long-term gaging 
stations in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region (continued) 


LAKE CHAMPLAIN BA
IN (Continued) 


4-2745. Black Brook at Black Brook, N.Y. 
LOCATION .-- Lat 44°26'50", long 73°44'45", on right bank three-quarters of a mi Ie south of hamlet of Black Brook, CI inton 
County, and 1 1/2 mi les upstream from mouth. 
ORAINAGE AREA. --49.4 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE .-- 37 years, 48.9 cfs. 
RECORDS AVAILABLE. -- Sept. 1924 to Sept. 1961 (discontinued). 
EXTREMES OF RECORD .-- Maximum discharge, 1,050 cfs Apri 1 6, 1937 (gage height, 6.95 ft)j minimum 0.8 cfs July 2, 
August 2 9, 1 9 31 . 
REMARKS.-- Flow regulated by Fern Lake and Taylor Pond. Prior to October 1937, diurnal fluctuation at low and medium flow 
caused by powerplant. 


Pe r i od 
(Consecutive 
da s 
I 
7 
30 
90 


Magn i tude and frequency of 
annual high flow, based on 
1925-61 water ears. 
Discharge, in cfs, for indicated 
recurrence interval in ears 
2 5 20 
16 
311 
1 
II 


Per i cd 
(Consecut i ve 
da s 
1 
7 
30 


Magn i tude and frequency of 
annual low flow, based on 
1925-60 c 1 i mat i c ears. 
Discharge, in cfs, for indicated 
recurrence interval in ears 
2 5 10 20 30 
2. 1. 1 
5 4 3. 


Recu rrence i nterva 1 
Yea r s) 
10 
20 
30 


Wi thin-year storage, in cfs-days, required to maintain 
the following draft rates, in cfs, based on 
1925-60 cl imatic ears. 
7 cfs 13 cfs 
o 
35 295 
4 360 


4-2750. East Branch Ausable River at Au Sable Forks, N.Y. 
lliM.!.Q!!.-- Lat 44°26'20", long 73°40'55", on left bank 700 ft upstream from upper highway bridge in Au Sable Forks, Essex 
County, and half a mile upstream from confluence with West Branch. 
DRAINAGE AREA. -- 198 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE. -- 42 years, 300 cfs. 
ReCORDS AVAILABLE. -- Sept. 1924 to Sept. 1966. 
EXTREMES OF RECORD. -- Maximum discharge, 20,100 cfs September 22, 1938 (gage height, 12.91 ft); minimum discharge, 20 cfs 
August 11, 14, 2 8 , 1934. 

--Occasional regulation of storage in Upper and Lower Ausable Lakes and occasional small diurnal fluctuation, cause 
unKnown. 


Pe r i od 
(Con secu ti ve 
da s 
I 
7 
30 
90 


Magn i tude and frequency of 
annual high flow, based on 
1 2 -64 water ears. 
Di scharge, in cfs, for indicated 
recurrence interval in ears 
2 5 10 20 
5 620 10 
2,500 2820 110 
I 420 1 0 I 650 
833 905 9 3 


Period. 
(Con secut i ve 
da s 
I 
7 
30 


Recurrence interval 
Years) 
10 
20 
30 


storage, in cfs-days, required to maintain 
in cf s, based on 


4-2755. Ausable River near Au Sable Forks. N.Y. 
LOCATION .--Lat 44°27'05", long 73°38'35", on left bank I 3/4 miles downstream from confluence of East and West Branches at 
Au Sable Forks, Cl inton County. 
DRAINAGE AREA. --448 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DI SCHARGE. -- 56 years, 668 cfs. 
RECORDS AVAILABLE. --August 1910 to September 1966. 
EXTREMES OF RECORD .--Maximum discharge, 24,200 cfs September 22, 1938 (gage height, 11.65 ft); practically no flow 
July 21, 1912, result of unusual regulation. 
REMARKS. -- Flow partly regulated since 1905, principally by Taylor Pond and Fern Lake in Black Brook basin. Some intermittent 
diurnal fluctuation at low and medium flow caused by powerplant above station. 


Per i cd Discharge, in cfs, for indicated 
(con::


 i ve recurrence Interval. in vears 
2 5 10 20 30 
I 130 110 100 GO 80 
7 140 120 110 100 90 
30 170 145 130 120 5 


Magn i tude and frequency of 
annua I low f low, based on 
1926-63 climatic years. 


Recurrence interval 
Years) 
10 
20 
30 


- 89 - 



Appendix 1 


Compilation of streamflow characteristics at long-term gaging 
stations in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region (continued) 


LAKE CHAMPLAIN BASIN (Continued) 


4-2765. Bouquet River at WI11sboro. N.Y. 

 --Lat 44°21'30", long 73°23'50", on right bank at WI l1sboro, Essex County, half a mile upstream from bridge on 
State HI'ghway 22, 2 1/2 miles downstream from North Branch Bouquet River and 3 miles upstream from mouth. 
DRAINAGE AREA. -- 275 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE .-- 43 years (1923-66), 293 cfso 66 
RECORDS AVAILABLE -- August and September 1904, August to November 1908, July 1923 to September 1
 . 88 f 
EXTREMES OF RECORD .-- Maximum discharge, 11,800 cfs October 1, 1924 (gage height, 10085 ft), minimum, . c s 
September 20 , 1957 . 51' hIt' b L' col Pond 
REMARKS.-- Occasional diurnal fluctuation at low flow caused by powerplant at Wadhams. Ig t regu a Ion y In n 
on Blac k River. 


Period 
(Consecu t I ve 
da s 
1 
7 
30 
90 


Per I od 
(Con secut I ve 
da s 


Magn i tude and frequency of 
annual low flow, based on 
1924-63 climatic earso 
Discharge, In cfs, for indicated 
recurrence interval in ears 
2 5 10 20 30 
2 1 1 
33 26 22 
o 31 2 


storage, in cfs-days, required to maintain 
In cf s, based on 


125 cfs 
o 00 
13 600 
15,200 


LOCATION .-- Lat 43°58'00", long 74°07'55", on right bank 30 ft downstream from bridge on State Highway 28N, half a mile 
downstream from outlet of Harri sLake, 2 mi les east of Newcomb, Essex County, and 4 miles upstream from Wol f Creek. 
DRAINAGE AREA. -- 192 sq mt. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE .-- 41 years, 383 cfs. 
RECORDS AVAILABLE .-- September 1925 to September 1966. 
EXTREMES OF RECORD .-- Maximum discharge, 7,440 cfs January I, 1949 (gage height, 11.40 ft); minimum, 11 cfs September 3, 1934. 


REMARKS. -- Flow sl ightly regulated by small reservoi rs above station. 


Period 
(Consecut I ve 
da s 
J 
7 
30 


Magn i tude and frequency of 
annua I low f low, based on 
1926-63 climatic ears. 
Discharge, in cfs, for indicated 
recurrence interval in ears 
2 10 20 30 
I 12 
15 13 
20 19 


Recurrence interval 
Years) 
10 
20 
30 


required to maintain 
in cf s, based on 


200 cfs 
2 
2 000 
32 500 


1-3135. Cedar River below Chain Lakes. near Indian Lake, N.Y. 
LOCATION .--Lat 43°51'20", long 74°14'20", on left bank 1 1/2 miles downstream from Rock River, 2 miles east of outlet of 
Chain Lakes, 3 miles upstream from mouth and 5 1/2 miles northeast of village of Indian Lake, Hamilton County. 
DRAI NAGE AREA. --160 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE .--31 years, 313 cfs. 
RECORDS AVAILABLE. --October 1930 to September 1961 (discontinued). 
EXTREMES OF RECORO .--Haxlmum discharge 10,200 cfs September 28, 1942 (gage height, 14.40 ft); minimum, 9.7 cfs August 4, 1955. 
REMARKS. --Flow sl ightly regulated by storage in Cedar River flow. Diurnal fluctuation at low and medium flow caused by 
powerplant above stat Ion. 


Hagn I tude and frequency of 
annual low flow, based on 
1931-60 climatic ears. 
Discharge, in cfs, for indicated 
recurrence interval In ears 
2 5 10 20 30 
20 12 
2 
36 


Recurrence interval 
Years) 
10 
20 
30 


Wi thin-year storage, in cfs-days, required to maintain 
the following draft rates, in cfs, based on 
1931-60 cl imatic ears. 
45 cfs 75 cfs 
o 2 0 
660 3 100 
720 3,200 


125 cf s 
I 000 
13 100 
13,900 


- 90 - 



Appendix 1 


Compilation of streamflow characteristics at long-term gaging 
stations in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region (continued) 


UPPER HUDSON RIVER BASIN (Continued) 


1-3140. Hudson RI ver at Goo ley, near I nd I an Lake. N. V. 
LOCATION .--Lat 43°49'55", long 74°11'45", on right bank half a mile upstream from. Gooley, E55e
 County, I mile upstream from 
Indian River, I 1/2 miles downstream from Cedar River, and 5 miles northeast of village of Indian lake, Hamilton Count Yo 
DRAINAGE AREA. -- 419 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE. -- 50 years, 820 cfs. 
R EC ORDS AVAILABLE.-- August 1916 to September 1966. 39 f 
EXTREMES OF RECORD. --Maximum discharge, 15,000 cfs January I, 1949 (gage height, 10.44 ft); minimum discharge, c s 
August 11, 1933. 

__ Flow partly regulated by small reservoirs upstream from station. 


Magn I tude and frequency of 
annual high flow, based on 


in cts-days, required to maintain 
In cfs, based on 


1-3155. Hudson River at North Creeko N.V. 
LOCATlON .--Lat 43°42 ' 00", long 73°59 ' 00", on left bank 125 ft upstream from bridge on State Highway 28N In vi 11 age of North 
Creek, Warren County, 500 ft upstream from North Creek. 
DRA I NAGE AREA. -- 792 sq m I. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE .-- 59 years, 1,518 cfs. 
RECORDS AVAILABLE. -- September 1907 to September 1966. 
EXTREMES OF RECORD .--Maxlmum discharge, 28,900 cfs December 31, 1948 (gage height, 12.14 ft); minimum discharge, 112 cfs 
J u l y Zb , 193'1 . 
REHARKS. --Appreciable regulation by Indian Lake and other reservoi rs above stlltlono 


Magn I tude and frequency of 
ar9
8
6ti
t:
";'
a
:.sed on 


Hagn i tude and frequency of 
f90

J31
1


 
::::oon 
Di scharge, In cts, for Indlc:.lted 
recurrence Interval In ears 
2 10 0 30 


Per i ad 
(Consecutive 
da s 
I 
7 
30 
90 


Recurrence interval 
Yea rs 
10 
20 3 000 
30 3,700 


storage, in cfs-days, required to maintain 
in ct s, based on 


1-3170. Schroon River at Rlverbank o N.Y. 
L
CATlON .--Lat 43°36'40", long 73°44'!O", on right bank 30 ft upstream from highway bridge at Riverbank, Warren County, 006 
mile upstream from Alder Brook, 6.4 mIles downstream from dam at Starbuckvi lie, and 11.8 miles downstream from Schroon Lakeo 
DRAINAGE AREA. -- 527 sq ml. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE .-- 59 years, 785 cfs. 
RECORDS AVAI LABLE. -- September 1907 to September 1966. 





MES OF RECORD .--Maximum discharge, 12,100 cts March 21, 1936 (gage height, 12.18 ft); minimum, 20 cfs September 11-13, 
REHARKS. --Intermittent regulation of storage in Schroon Lake at Starbuckvil1e Dam and in other smaller lakes. 


Per I od 
(Consecut I ve 
da s 
1 
7 
30 
90 


Recurrence i nterva I 
Years) 
10 
20 
30 


Within-year storage, In cfs-days, required to maintain 
the following draft rates, in cfs, based on 
1908-63 c1 imatlc ears. 
1 DO cts 200 cfs 
00 
I 2 0 12 100 
1 6 0 13,700 


- 91 



Appendix 1 


Compilation of streamflow characteristics at long-term gaging 
stations in the Lake Ch;lmnl;lin-I Jnner Hudson region (continued) 


UPPER HUDSDN RIVER BASIN (Continued) 


1-3185. Hudson River at Hadley, N.Y. 
LDCATlON .-- Lat 43.19'10", long 73.50 ' 40", on right bank at Had'ley, Saratoga County, 400 ft downstream from outlet of 
Lake Luzerne and a q.uarter of a mi Ie upstream from Sacandaga River. 
DRA I NAGE AREA. --1,664 sq ml. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE .--45 years, 2,807 cfs. 
RECORDS AVAILABLE. --July 1921 to September 1966. .' . 
EXTREMES OF RECORD .--Maximum discharge, 42,700 cfs January I, 1949 (gage height, 21.21 ft); minimum discharge, 281 cfs 
September 3, 193 4 . . d h 
REMARKS.--Some diurnal fluctuation caused by powerplant on Schroon River. Flow partly regulated by Indian Lake an ot er 

irs above station. 


Per i od 
(Consecutive 
da s 
I 
7 
30 
90 


In cfs-days, required to maintain 
in cfs, based On 


Recu rrence in te rva I 
Years) 
10 
20 
30 


1-3190. East Branch SacandaQa River at Griffin. N.Y. 
LOCATlON .-- Lat 43.28'25", long 74.13'25", on left bank 300 ft upstream from highway bridge at Griffin, Hami I ton County, 2 mi les 
downstream from Georgia Creek, 3 miles upstream from mouth, and 7 miles upstream from well s. 
DRAINAGE AREA. -- 114 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE .--33 years, 207 cfs. 
RECORDS AVAILABLE .--August 1933 to September 1966 
EXTREMES OF RECORD .--Maximum di scharge, 10,700 cfs December 31, 1948 (gage height 14.35 ft); minimum discharge, 2.4 cfs 
September 30, 19 3 9. 

nNo known regulation. 


Magn i tude and frequency of 
'93


h


efrl
e'arbs
sed on 
Discharge, in cfs, for indicated 
recurrence interval in ears 
2 5 10 20 


Period 
(Con secut i ve 
da s 
I 
7 
30 


Magn i tude and frequency of 
annual low flow, based on 
1934-63 climatic ears. 
Discharge, in cfs, for indicated 
recurrence interval in ears 
2 5 10 20 30 


3 
4. 


Recurrence interval 
Years) 
10 
20 
30 


1-3210. SacandaQa River near Hope, N.Y. 
LOCATlON .--Lat 43.21 ' 10", long 74.16 ' 15", on left bank 1 1/2 miles downstream from West Branch Sacandaga River and 4112 miles 
upstream from Hope, Hami Iton County. 
DRAI NAGE AREA. -- 491 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE .-- 55 years, 1,081 cfs. 
RECORDS AVAILABLE. -- September 1911 to September 1966. 




:


F30
E


D3 ''-- Max imum di scharge, 32,000 cfs March 27, 1913 (gage he i ght, 11.0 ft), mi n Imum discharge, about 16 cfs 
REMARKS.-- Some seasonal regulation at Plseco Lake Outlet and since 1959, intermittent regulation of Lake Algonquin at Wells, 
'IIiiiTi'eS upstream. Infrequent minor fluctuations by mi 11 upstream. 


Per i oct 
(Consecutive 
da s 
1 
7 
30 
90 


Magn i tude and frequency of 
annual low flow, based on 
1912-63 cl imatic years. 
Discharge, in cfs, for indicated 
recurrence interval in ears 
2 5 10 20 30 


Recurrence interval 
Years) 
10 
20 
30 


Within-year storage, in cfs-days, required to maintain 
the following draft rates, in cfs, based on 
1912-63 cl imatic ears. 
100 cfs 200 cfs 
1 I 0 000 
J 620 200 
I 10 600 


300 cfs 
I 000 
21 100 
22 10 


500 cfs 
o 0 
60 000 
6 


- 92 



Appendix 1 


Compilation of streamflow characteristics at long-term gaging 
stations in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region (continued) 


UPPER HUDSON RIVER BASIN (Continued) 


1-3280. Bond Creek at Dunham Basin, N.Y. 
LOCATlON.--Lat 43°18'25", long 73°32'55", on left bank at Dunham Basin, Washington County, 800 ft upstream from bridge on 
St;teHighway 196, 1/4 mIle upstream from Glens Falls feeder & abandoned Ch
lain Canal, 1/2 mile upstream from Champlain 
(Barge) Canal, and 1.9 miles east of court house at Hudson Falls. 
DRAI NAGE AREA. -- 14.7 sq ml. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE. -- 19 years, 15.6 cfs. 
RECORDS AVAILABLE. -- June 1947 to September '966. I 19 48 ( h' ht 8 52 ft). minimum dl scharge, 0.10 cfs 
EXTREMES OF RECORD .--Maximum discharge, 1,370 cfs December 3 , gage e'g ,. . 
August I, 2, 1965. 
REMARKS. --No known regulation. 


163 
75. 
41. 


Period 
(Consecut I ve 
da s 


Period 
(Consecu t I ve 
da s 
1 
7 
30 
90 


Magn I tude and frequency of 
annual high flow, based on 
I 48-64 water ears. 
Discharge, in cfs, for indicated 
recurrence interval In ears 
2 5 10 20 


7 
30 


1.1 
1.4 


.8 
1.1 


1.0 


.6 
.9 


in cfs-days, required to maintain 
in cfs, based on 


1-3295. Batten Ki 11 at Battenvl lie, N. Y. 
LOCATION . -- Lat 43°06'05", long 73°25'55", on left bank I mi Ie southwest of Battenvl lIe, Washington County, and 1.2 mi les 
upstream from Trout Brook. 
DRAINAGE AREA. -- 394 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE. -_"44 years, 694 cfs. 
RECORDS AVAILABLE. -- September to December 1908 (gage heights only), October 1922 to September 1966. 
EXTREMES OF RECORD.-- Maximum discharge, 21,300 cfs November 4, 1927 (gage heig,t, 17.7 ft); minimum, 7.3 cfs October 5, 1953. 


REMARKS. -- No appreciable regulation. 


Period 
(Consecutive 
da s 
I 
7 
30 
90 


Magn i tude and frequency of 
annual low flow, based on 
1923-63 climatic ears. 
Discharge, in cfs, for indicated 
recurrence interval in ears 
2 5 10 20 
5 
70 
84 


Recurrence interval 
Years) 
10 
20 
30 


- 93 



Appendix 2 


Data summary for short-term gaging stations and partial-record sites 
in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region 


LAKE CHAMPLA I N BAS I N 
4-2718. Little Chazy River near Chazyo N.Y. 
LOCATION.-- Lat 44°50'46", long 73°27'24", at bridge on Slosson Road, 105 miles west of UoS. Highway 9, and 
3.2 mi les southwest of Chazy, CI inton County. 


DRAINAGE AREA.-- 35.4 sq mi. 
AVERAGE 0 I SCHARGE.-- 
RECORDS AVAILABLE.-- 12 discharge maasurements, 1956-66. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.-- D.20 cfs. 
REMARKS. -- 


Date D i scha rqe 
alIA. 4.41 a 
6 28 10.5 a 
7 24 7 4.lq a 
8 26 8 
.1q " 
10 22 8 6.76 a 
7 22 q 
.51 e 


4-2726. Sumner Brook et Bloomlnqdalao N.Y. 
LOCATION.-- Lat 44°24'30", long 74°05'.03", at bridge on Stete Highway 3, 0.3 ml Ie east of center of 
Bloomingdale, Essex County, and 1.5 miles upstream from mouth. 


DRAINAGE AREA.-- 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.-- 







 




L
. 


5;J

,h:[g;A
e

u

:nDt

c.J1:JE
: 20 cfs. 
REMARKS. -- Unregulated. 


4-2727. North Branch Saranac River near Clayburq, N.Y. 
LOCATION.-- Lat 44°35'33", long 73°52'34", at bridge on State Hlghwey 3 and 365, 2.0 mi les west of 
Claybu rg, CI I nton County. 


DRAINAGE AREA.--125 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.-- 
RECORDS AVAILABLE.--10 discharge measurements, 1956-66. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.--50 cfs. 
REMARKS. -- 


4-2730. Saranac Ri ver at Saranac. N. Y. 
LOCATlON.--Lat 44°38'45", long 73°44'40", on right bank 500 ft upstream from highway bridge at 
Saranac, CI i nton County. 


DRAINAGE AREA. -- 521 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.-- 13 years, 668 cfs. 
RECORDS AVA I LABLE. -- October 1931 to September 1943. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.--12S cfs. 
REMARKS.-- Diurnal fluctuation caused by power operations. Flow partly regulated by storage in 
Lower Saranac Lake and el sewhere. 


Date 


Di scharae 


!of Base f,
,," 


= 94 - 


Date 


D i scharqe 



Appendix 2 


Data summary for short-term gaging stations and partial-record sites 
in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region (continued) 


LAKE CHAMPLAIN BAS IN (Continued) 
4-2737. Salmon River at South Plattsburqh, N.Y. 


LOCATION.-- Lat 44°38'24", long 73°29'43", on left bank at bridge on Salmon River Road, at South Plattsburgh, 
CI inton County, 0.4 mile west of State Highway 22, and 3.9 mIles upstream from mouth. 


ORAl NAGE AREA. -- 61.9 sq mi. 
AVERAGE 0 I SCHARGE.-- 
RECOROS AVAILABLE.-- May 1959 to September 1966 (no winter records thru 1965). 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE OAY 10 YEAR OISCHARGE.-- 5.5 cfs. 
REMARKS.-- Occasional minor regulation from upstream mill. 


Oate 


OJ scha roe 


Oate 


OJ scha rqe 


4-2738. Little Ausable River near Valcour, N.Y. 
LOCATlON.-- Lat 44°35'39", long 73°29'48", at bridge on town road, at Lapham Mi l1s, Cl inton County, and 
2.8 mi les sQuthwest of Valcour. 


DRAINAGE AREA.--67.8 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.-- 
RECORDS AVAILABLE.--l0 discharge measurements, 19
b-66. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.--1.5 cfs. 
REMARKS. -- 


4-2748. East Branch Ausable River at Keene Val1ey. N.Y. 
LOCATlON.--Lat 44°11'31", long 73°47'08", at bridge on Village Park Road. at Keene valley, Essex County. 


DRAINAGE AREA.--49.2 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.-- 
RECORDS AVAILABLE.-- 10 discharge measurements, 1957-66. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.-- 10 cfs. 
REMARKS. -- 


4-2751. Palmer Creek at Au Sable Forks o N.Y. 
LOCATION.-- Lat 44°26'39", long 73°40'27", at bridge on State Highway 9N, 0.3 ml Ie north of Au Sable 
Forks, Cl into,", County. 


DRAINAGE AREA.-- 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.-- 
RECORDS AVAILAI'\LE.--6 discharge measurements, 1911-66. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGL--2.0 cfs. 
REMARKS. -- 


!of Base flow. 


- 95 - 



Appendix 2 


Data summary for short-term gaging stations and partial-record sites 
in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region (continued) 


LAKE CHAMPLAIN BASIN (Continued) 


4-2762. Bouquet River at New Russia, N.Y. 
LOCATION.--Lat 44°09'51", long 73°36'30", at bridge on County Highway, 0.2 mile east of 
U.S. Highway 9, at New Russia, Essex County. 


DRAINAGE AREA.--37.6 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.-- 
RECORDS AVAI LABLE.-- 18 di scharge measurements, 1948-66. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.--3.5 cfs. 
REMARKS. -- 


4-2769. English Brook at Lake GeorQe, N.Y. 
LOCATION.--Lat 43° 2 6'23", long 73°43'25", at bridge on Big Hollow Road, about 500 ft upstream 
from Big Hollow Branch, at Lake George, Saratoga County. 


DRAINAGE AREA.--5.03 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.-- 
RECORDS AVAILABLE.-- 12 discharge measurements, 1961-66. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.--0.20 cfs. 
REMARKS. -- 


Date D i scha roe 
b/21S/63 1.95 al 
7/11:1163 .74 al 
9/19/63 .30 al 
51 SIb'! b.Ol al 
7/14/65 .57 al 
7/14166 1.12 al 


4-2783. Northwest Bay Brook near Bolton Landino. N.Y. 
LOCATlON.-- Lat 43°39'48", long 73°36'16", on left bank, 10 ft downstream from bridge on 
Wardsboro Road, 7.1 mJ les north of Bolton Landing, Warren County. 
DRAINAGE AREA.--23.4 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.-- 
RECORDS AVAI LABLE.--October 1965 to September 1966. 
MI N I MUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUT I VE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE. --0030 cfs. 
REMARKS. -- 


Date 


D i scharoe 


Date 


D i scha roe 


4-2790.10 Trout Brook at Ti conderoQa, N. Y. 


LOCATION.--Lat 43°50'46", long 73°26'28", at bridge on State Highway 9N, 0.2 mi Ie west of 
vi llage 1 ine of Ticonderoga, Essex County, and 0.9 mi Ie upstream from mouth. 
DRAINAGE AREA.-- 24.6 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.-- 
RECORDS AVAILABLE.--IO discharge measurements, 1962-66. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.-- 0.50 cfs. 
REMARKS. -- 



/ Base flow. 
Peak d I scha rge. 
'''1ated. 


- 96 - 



Appendix 2 


Data summary for short-term gaging stations and partial-record sites 
in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region (continued) 


LAKE CHAMPLAIN BASIN (Continued) 
4-2804. Mettawee River at Granvi lie. N.Y. 
LOCATION.--Lat 43°24'25", long 73°15'45", at bridge on State Highway 22, lit Granvi lIe, 
Washington County. 


DRAINAGE AREA.--115 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.-- 
RECORDS AVAI LABLE.-- 10 di scharge measurements, 1960-66. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.--7. 0 cfs. 
RE MARKS. -- 


4-2806. Biq Creek at Smiths Basin, N.Y. 
LOCATION.-- Lat 43°21'23", long 73°29'16", at highway bridge 0.35 mi Ie upstream from mouth, and 
0.5 mile east of Smiths Basin, Washington County. 


DRAINAGE AREA. -- 33.5 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.-- 
RECORDS AVAI LABLE.-- 12 di scharge measurements, 1961-66. 
MI N I MUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUT I VE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE. -- O. 10 cf s. 
REMARKS. -- 


UPPER HUDSON RIVER BAS I N 
1-3119. Opalescent River below Flowed Land, near Tahawus, N.Y. 
LOCATION.-- Lat 44°06'25", long 73°59'30", on left bank one-eighth mi Ie below dam at outlet of 
Flowed Land, in town of Newcomb, Essex County, and about 8 mi les upstream from mouth. 


DRAINAGE AREA.-- 9.0 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.--28 cfs (adjusted to 1931-60). 
RECORDS AVAI LABLE.-- December 1921 to October 1922. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.--0.5 cfs. 
REMARKS. -- Seasonal regulation. 


Date 


D i scharQe 


Date 


D I scha rqe 


1-3142. Jessup River near Speculator, N.Y. 


LOCATION.--Lat 43°34'56", long 74°24'24", at bridge on State Highway 10, 6.0 miles northwest 
of Speculator, Hamilton County. 


DRA I NAGE AREA. -- 40 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.--l04 cfs (adjusted to 1931-60). 
RECORDS AVAI LABLE.--1 1 di scharge measurements, 1956-66. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.--l0.5 cfs. 
REMARKS.--No known regulation. 


!.I Base flow. 


- 97 



Appendix 2 


Data summary for short-term gaging stations and partial-record sites 
in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region (continued) 


UPPER HUDSON RIVER BASIN (ContInued) 
1-3152. Boreas River near Aiden Lairo N.Y. 
LOCATION.--Lat 43°53'31", long 74°00'57", at bridge on State Highway 28N, 1.6 miles northwest 
of Aiden Lai r, Essex County. 


DRAINAGE AREA. -- 51.7 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE."- 100 cfs (adjusted to 1931-60). 
RECORDS AVAI LABLL-- 16 di scharge measurements, 1956-66. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGL--5.5 cfs. 
REMARKS.-- No known regulation. 


1-3160. North Creek at North Creek. N.Y. 
LOCATlON.-- Lat 43°41'50", long 73°59'05", on left bank, just upstream from abandoned dam in 
vi 11 age of North Creek, Warren County, and 60 ft upstream from mouth. 


DRAINAGE AREA.--21.8 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGL--38.1 cfs (adjusted to 1931-60). 
RECORDS AVAIL.ABLE.--August 1924 to September 1932. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGL--1.0 cfs. 
REMARKS.--Occasional minor regulation. 


Date 


D i scha rqe 


Date 


D I scha rge 


1-3162. Schroon River at Severence, N.Y. 
LOCATlON.-- Lat 43°52'31", long 73°44'25", at bridge on State Highway 73, 0.6 mi Ie west of 
Severence, Essex County. 


DRAINAGE AREA. -- 173 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGL--265 cfs (adjusted to 1931-60). 
RECORDS AVAI LABLL-- 16 di scharge measurements, 1956-66. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGL-- 24.5 cfs. 
REMARKS.-- No known regulation. 


1-3168. Trout Brook at Pottersvllle, N.Y. 
LOCATION. -- Lat 43°43'39", long 73°49'28", at bridge on U. S. Route 9 at Pottersvi 11 e. 


DRAINAGE AREA.--99.1 
AVERAGE DISCIlARGL-- '70 cfs (adjusted to 1931-60). 
RECORDS AVAILABLL-- 13 discharge measurements July 1956 to October 1966. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGL-- 8 cfs. 
REMARKS.--No known regulation. 


- 98 - 



Appendix 2 


Data summary for short-term gaging stations and partial-record sites 
in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region (continued) 


UPPER HUDSON RIVER BASIN (Continued) 


1-3180. Hudson River at Thurman o N.Y. 
LOCATION.-- Lat 43°28' 50", long 73°44' 15", at upstream side near center of left span of Delaware and 
Hudson Rai 1 road bridge near Thurman rai 1 road station, Warren County, half a mi Ie downstream from 
Schroon River. 
DRAINAGE AREA. -- 1,533 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.-- 2,625 cfs (adjusted to 1931-60). 
RECORDS AVAI LABLE.-- September 1907 to September 1920. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAy 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.--350 cfs. 
REMARKS.-- Some diurnal fluctuation caused by powerplants on Schroon River. Seasonal flow partly 
regulated by Indian Lake and other reservei rs upstream from station. 


Date 


D i scha rqe 


Date 


D i scha rqe 


-- 


1-3198. West Branch Sacandaqa River near Arietta, N.Y. 
LOCATION.--Lat 43°15'03", long 74°31'06", at bridge on State Highway 10,0.4 mile north of 
Arietta, Hamilton County. 


DRAINAGE AREA.-- 28.9 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.--95 cfs (adjusted to 1931-60). 
RECORDS AVAILABLE.--19 discharge measurements, June 1957 to October 1966. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.-- 1.0 cfs. 
REMARKS. --No known regu 1 at i on. 


1-3199.5. Sand Lake Outlet near Piseco. N.Y. 


LOCATlON.--Lat 43°22' 15", long 74°32'47", at bridge on State Highway 10, 0.9 mi Ie upstream from 
mouth, and 5.5 mi les south of Pi seco, Hami I ton County. 


DRAINAGE AREA.--7.16 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.-- 23 cfs (adjusted to 1931-60). 
RECORDS AVAI LABLE. --14 di scharge measurements, Apri I 1962 to October 1966. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.-- 0.3 cfs. 
REMARKS. -- No known regu I ati on. 


1-3205. West Branch Sacandaqa River at Blackbridqe, near Wells. N.Y. 
LOCATION.--Lat 43°22'10", long 74°19'30", on upstream side of bridge known as Black bridge, 
2 mi les upstream from mouth, and about 3 mi les west of We11s, Hami Iton County. 


DRAINAGE AREA.--210 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.-- 484 cfs (adjusted to 1931-60). 
RECORDS AVAILABLE.-- Apri 1 1911 to September 1916. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.--17 cfs. 
REMARKS.--Since 1959, affected by intermittent regulation of Lake Algonquin at Wells. 


Date 


D i scha rQ8 


a/ Bese flow. 
E/ Peak di scharge. 


- 99 - 


Date 


D i scha rQe 



Appendix 2 


Data summary for short-term gaging stations and partial-record sites 
in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region (continued) 


UPPER HUDSON RIVER BASIN (Continued) 
1-3215. West Stony Creek near Northvil1e. N.Y. 
LOCATlON.-- Let 43°15'10", long 74°13'30", on right benk, et highway bridge on the Northville Benson 
road, about 1,000 ft upstream from mouth, and about 3 miles northwest of Northvi lie, Ful ton Coun"ty. 


DRAINAGE AREA. -- 88 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.-- 204 cfs (adjusted to 1931-60). 
RECORDS AVAI LABLE.-- September 1933 to September 1937. 
M I N I MUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUT I VE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE. -
 4 c f s. 
REMARKS.-- Unregulated. 


Date 


D i scha roe 


Date 


D i scha rQe 


1-3220. East Stony Creek near Northvi lIe. N. Y. 


LOCATION.--Lat 43°17'50", long 74°11'40", on right abutment of highway bridge 0.7 mile west 
of Hope Falls, and 5 miles north of Northville, Fulton County. 


DRA I NAGE AREA. -- 89 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISc.HARGE.--175 cfs (adjusted to 1931-60). 
RECORDS AVAI LABLE.-- September 1933 to September 1937. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.--5.5 cfs. 
REMARKS. -- Un regu I a ted. 


Date 


D i scharQe 


Date 


D I scha rCle 


1-3230. Kennyetto Creek near Broadalbin, N.Y. 
LOCATION.--Lat 43°04'00", long 74°08'45", at downstream side of left abutment of county bridge 
on fann road, 2 miles upstream from Broadalbin, Fulton County, and 4 miles upstream from 
Sacandaga Re se rvo i r. 
DRAINAGE AREA.-- 28.3 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.--53 cfs (adjusted to 1931-60). 
RECORDS AVAILABLE.--August 1939 to September 1946. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.-- 4 cfs. 
REMARKS. -- Un regu lated. 


Date 


D I scha rQe 


Date 


D I scha rQe 


1-3265. Hudson River at Spier Falls. N.Y. 
LOCATION.--Lat 43°14'19", long 73°44'50", on right bank 0.5 mile downstream from Spier Falls dam, 
II miles southwest of Glens Fall s, Warren County, end 11.5 mi les downstream from Sacendaga River. 


DRAINAGE AREA.-_2,779 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.--4,900 cfs (adjusted to 1931-60). 
RECORDS AVAILABLE.-- January 1899 to March 1923. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.--700 cfs. 
REMARKS.-- Seasonal flow affected by storage in Indian Lake and, since 1930, by Sacandage Reservei r. 
Diurnal fluctuation caused by mills and powerplants abolle station. 


Date 


D i scha rQe 


Date 


D I scha rQe 


100 - 



Appendix 2 


Data summary for short-term gaging stations and partial-record sites 
in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region (continued) 


UPPER HUDSON RIVER BASIN (Continued) 
1-3267. Clendon Brook near Glens Falls. N.Y. 


LOCATIDN.-- Lat 43°18'14", long 73°43'30", at bridge on Luzerne Road, 1.9 miles upstream from mouth 
and 3.1 mi les west of Glens Fall s City Line, Warren County, N. Y. 


DRAINAGE AREA.-- 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.-- 
RECORDS AVAI LABLE. -- 7 discharge measurements, August 1953 to October 1966. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.--2.2 cfs. 
REMARKS. -- No known regulation. 




- D i scha roe 

1/53 3.21 a/ 
q/II/53 3.05 a 
9/23/53 3.10 a/ 
10rV53 I.O
 a/ 


Date D i scha roe 
10/15/53 3.61 a/ 
10/30/53 5.56 
T 
1 0/ 6/66 .To ar 


1-3285.32. Snook Ki 11 Tributary at Kina Station. N.Y. 
LOCATION.-- Lat 43°08'37", long 73°45'58", at culvert on U.S. Highway 9, 0.45 mile south of 
King Station, Saratoga County. 


DRAINAGE AREA.--0.57 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.-- 
RECORDS AVAI LABLE. -- 5 discharge measu rements, Apr i I 1962 to October 1966. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.--O cfs. 
REMARKS. -- Unregulated. 


Date D i scha rqe 
7/ 6/62 0 
10/ 4/66 .36 a/ 


1-3285.37 Lake Elizabeth Inlet at KIna Station, N.Y. 
LOCATION.--Lat 43°08'18", long 73°46'08", at culvert on U.S. Highway 9, 0.5 mile upstream 
from Lake Elizabeth, and 0.8 mile south of King Station, Saratoga County, N.Y. 


DRAINAGE AREA.--1.34 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.-- 
RECORDS AVAI LABLE.-- 5 di scharge measurements, Apri 1 1962 to October 1966. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY ID YEAR DISCHARGE.-- 0.1 cfs. 
REMARKS.-- Unregulated. 


Date Di scharoe 


1-3286.7 Snook Kill at Gansevoort. N.Y. 
LOCATlDN.-- Lat 43°11'54", long 73°39'22", at bridge on County Highway 32, 0.3 mile west 
of Gansevoort, Saratoga County, end 4.6 mi les east of Wi Iton. 


DRAINAGE AREA.-- 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.-- 
RECORDS AVAILABLE.-- 4 discharge measurements, July 1964 to October 1966. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.-- 8.4 cfs. 
REMARKS.-- Occasional regulation at Camp Saratoga. 


a/ Base flow. 

/ Regulation. 


1 01 


Date D I scha roe 



Appendix 2 


Data summary for short-term gaging stations and partial-record sites 
in the Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region (continued) 


UPPER HUDSDN RIVER BASIN (Continued) 
1-3287. Moses Kill near Fort Miller, N.Y. 
LOCATlON.--Lat 43°12'12", long 73°33'06", at bridge on county highway, 3.2 mi les northeast of 
Fort Mi 11er, Washington County. 


DRAINAGE AREA.--37.9 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.--31 cfs (adjusted to 1931-60). 
RECORDS AVAILABLE.--17 d.ischarge measurements, July 1956 to October 1966. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CONSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.--O cfs. 
REMARKS. -- No Known regula tion. 


1-3293. White Creek near Salem o N.Y. 
LOCATIDN.--Lat 43°09'07", long 73°21'18", at bridge on town road, 2.1 miles southwest of Salem, 
Wash i ngton County. 


DRAINAGE AREA.--48.6 sq mi. 
AVERAGE DISCHARGE.nIOO cfs. 
RECORDS AVAI LABLE.--18 di scharge measurements, July 1956 to Dctober 1966. 
MINIMUM AVERAGE 7 CDNSECUTIVE DAY 10 YEAR DISCHARGE.--3 cfs. 
REMARKS. -- No known regu 1 at ion. 


!.I Base flow. 


- 102 



Appendix 3 


Discharge measurements made at miscellaneous sites in the 
Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region 


Drainage Measurements 
Station Noo Station name Tributary to Location araa I Discharge 
(sq mi) Date (cfs) 


2709.80 


2717.59 


2717.60 


2717.80 


2725.07 


2725.12 


2726.10 


2727.25 


2730.05 


2730.06 


2730.17 


2730.30 


2730.32 


2736.92 


2736.93 


2736.95 


2737.04 


Graves Brook 
nea r I rona 


Farre I Brook 
near West Chazy 


do. 


Li tt I e Chazy Ri ver 
at West Chazy 


Ray Brook at 
Ray Brook 


Saranac River 
at Saranac Lake 


Cold Brook near 
Bloomingdale 


True Brook near 
Moffitsville 


Behan Brook near 
Picketts Corners 


do. 


Canfi e I d Brook 
at EI sinore 


Sandburn Brook 
near Dannemora 


Sandbu rn Brook nea r 
West Plattsburgh 


Ri ley Brook 
at Woods Mi II s 


Ri ley Brook 
nea r Wood s Mill s 


Ri ley Brook 
near Morrisonville 


Salmon River near 
South Plattsburgh 


al Base flow. 
It Peak d i scha rge' 


North Branch 
Chazy River 


Li ttle Chazy 
River 


do. 


Lake Champ I a I n 


Osee tah Lake 


Lake Champ I a in 


Saranac River 


do. 


do. 


do, 


do, 


Mead Brook 


do. 


Sa lmon Ri ver 


do. 


do. 


Lake Champ I a in 


Lake ChamD I a I n bas i n 
Lat 44°55'10", long 73°44'05", at bridge on U.S. 
Highway II, 1.9 mi les northwest of I rona, 
CI inton County, N. Y. 


Lat 44°47'34", long 73°32'1'7", near LaPlante Rd, 
100 ft downstream from unnamed tributary, and 
2.5 mi les southwest of West Chazy, Clinton 
County, N. Y. 


Lat 44°48'17", long 73°31'09", at bridge on 
O'Neil Rd., 1.3 miles southwest of West Chazy, 
CI inton County, N. Yo 


Lat 44°29'23", long 73°30'19", at rai 1 road 
bridge in West Chazy, CI inton County, N. Yo, 
002 mil e north of State HI gB-iay 348, 


Lat 44°17'33", long 74°05'36", on bridge on 
State road, O. I mile upstream from sewage 
disposal plant, 0.2 mile southwest of post 
office, Ray Brook, Essex County, N. y., and 
1.8 mi les upstream from mouth. 
Lat 44°19'39", long 74°07'56", at bridge on 
State Highway 3 at Saranac Lake, Frankl in 
County, N.Y. 


Lat 44°23'56", long 74°03'40", at bridge on 10.9 
River Road, 0.2 mile upstream from mouth, and 
1.0 mile southeast of Bloomingdale Town Line, 
Essex County, N. Yo 


Lat 44°38'15", long 73°45'50", along county 2207 
highway, 0.5 mile west of Moffl tsvi lie, 
CI inton County, No Yo 
La t 44°40'20", long 73°43' 36", at b ridge on 9.92 
Picketts Corners-Dannemora Road, 0.75 mi les 
north of Plcketts Corners, Clinton County, NoY 


Lat 44°40'08", long 73°42'44", at bridge on 7.b4 
State Highway 3 and 365, 001 mile upstream 
from mouth, and 1,3 miles northeast of 
Picketts Corners, CI in ton County, N. Y. 


Lat 44°41'35", long 73°40'00", at bridge on 4.45 
Buck Corners Road, at Elsinore, CI inton 
County, N. Y. 


Lat 44°44'53", long 73°37'36", at bridge on 3024 
French Settlement Road, 0.9 mile west of 
Rand Hili School and 5.0 miles east of 
Dannemora, CI inton County, N. Yo 


Lat 44°43'18", long 73°36'40", at bridge on 5.30 
Baker Road, 0.8 mile northwest of CI ty of 
Plattsburgh Reservoi r, and 2.1 mi les north- 
west of West Plattsburgh, Clinton County, N. Yo 


Lat 44°40'34", long 73°36'06", at bridge on 1065 
dirt road off Shingle Street, 1.0 mi south- 
east of Woods Mills, Clinton County, N. Y. 


Lat 44°40'31", Long 73°35'21", at bridge on 2.12 
Super Street, 1.6 mi les southeast of Woods 
Mills, Clinton County, No Y. 


Lat 44°40'40", long 73°33'36", at bridge on 4.17 
Mason Street, I. I mi les south of Morri sonvi lie, 
CI inton County, No Y. 


Lat 44°37'40", long 73°26'50", at bridge on 65.7 
U. So Highway 9, 2.1 miles east of South 
Plattsburgh, CI inton County, N. Y. 


103 


1701 


8/17/66 


8005 


8/16/66 


8.71 


8/16/66 


7/25/63 
8/16/66 


7/26163 
8/22/63 
8/26/63 
8/24/66 


8/24/66 


8/24/66 


7/13/47 
81 3/54 
8/22/66 
7/13/47 
81 3/54 
8/23/66 
8/23/66 


8/24/66 


8/24/66 


8/24/66 


8/24/66 


8/24/66 


8/24/66 


8/18/66 


1. 28 
l 


.78 
 


.53 
 


4.19 !.I 
1.83!.1 


9.27 
14.3 
:
:l 
 


I 06 !.I 


12, I !.I 


6 140 Y 
, 15.8 I 
9044 !. 
852 Y 

:

 !.I 
4.01 
/ 


1.07 !.I 


2.07 !.I 


2.59 
 


.68 !! 


. 77 !.I 


.83 
 


13.9 
 



Appendix 3 


Discharge measurements made at miscellaneous sites in the 
Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region (continued) 


Dreinage Measurements 
Station No. Station name Tributary to Locetion area I Discharge 
(sq mi) Date (cfs) 


Lake Champ 1 a i n bas i n--Cont i nued 


2737. 07 


0.22 2./ 


2742 


2742. 15 


2742. 30 


2742. 32 


2745.11 


2748.05 


2748.30 


2749.80 


2755.05 


2762.03 


2762 . 15 


2764.50 


2764.55 


2764.56 


2764.67 


2764.69 


2767.60 


2767.70 


Si Iver Stream near 
South PI attsburgh 


West Branch Ausable 
River at Wi lmington 


Beaver Brook near 
Wi lmington 


Pettigrew Creek near 
Hase 1 ton 


Pettigrew Creek at 
Hase I ton 


West Branch Ausable 
Ri ver tributary 
near Black Brook 


Johns Brook at 
Keene Valley 


Eas t B ranch Au sab Ie 
River at Keene 


Eas t Branch Ausab 1 e 
River tr i butary 
near No rth Jay 


Green Street Brook 
at Roge rs 


Roaring Brook at 
New Russia 


The B ranch at 
Eli zabe th town 


North Branch Bouquet 
River at Deerhead 


Chu rch Brook 
near l1eerhead 


Chu rch Brook 
at Dee rhead 


Spruce Mill Brook 
near Lew is 


Spruce Mi 11 Brook 
at Lewis 


Mi 11 Brook at 
Moriah Center 


Mi 11 Brook at 
Port Henry 


a/ Base flow. 

/ Peak discharge. 


Lake Champ 1 a in 


Lat 44°37'15", long 73°26'51", at bridge on U.S. 
Highway 9, 2.5 mi les southeast of South 
Plattsburgh, Cl inton County, N. Y. 


do. 


Lat 44°23'04", long 73°49'19", at dam in 
Wi Imington, Essex County, N. Y. 


West Branch Lat 44°23'34", long 73°46'32", at bridge on 8052 
Ausable River State Highway 86,2.0 miles east of 
Wi Imington, Essex County, N. Y. 


do. Lat 44°25'20", long 73°47'37", at culvert on 2002 
county road, 1.6 mi les nortBoiest of 
Haselton, Essex County, N. Y. 


do. Lat 44°24'49", long 73°45'55", at culvert on 2028 
county road, at mouth at Hasel ton, Essex 
County, N. Y. 


do. Lat 44°26'47", long 73°43'22",0.2 mile 1077 
upstream from mouth and 1.2 mi les southeast 
of Black Brook, Cl inton, N. Y. 


East Branch Lat 44°11'25", long 73°48'00", at bridge on 16.2 
Ausable River county highway, 0.65 mi Ie west of Keene 
Valley, Essex County, N. Y. 


Ausable River Lat 44°15'23", long 73°47'38", at bridge on 93.1 
State Highway 73 in Keene, Essex County, 
N. Y. 


East Branch Lat 44°24'24", long 73°40'58", at bridge on 6023 
Ausable River county road off State Highway 9N, 1.0 mi Ie 
northwest of North Jay, Essex County, N. Y. 


Ausable River Lat 44°27'19", long 73°36'12", at bridge at 5054 
Rogers, Essex County, N. Y. and 0.2 mi Ie 
upstream from mouth. 


Bouquet River Lat 44°10'02", long 73°37'23",0.5 mile upstream 9.03 
from mouth and U.S. Highway 9 and 0.8 
mi Ie northwest of New Russi a, Essex County,N. Y 


do. Lat 44°13'14", long 73°36'53", at bridge on 19,3 
State Highway 9N, 0.1 mile west of Town Line 
of El izabethtown, Essex County, N. Y. 


do. Lat 44°21'05", long 73°32'39", at bridge on 31.9 
U.S. Highway 9, at Deerhead, Essex County,N. Y. 


North Branch Lat 44°20'16", long 73°34'10", 0.7 mi Ie north- 1065 
Bouquet River west ot Fai rview Cemetery and 1.6 mi les 
southwest of Deerhead, Essex County, N. Y. 


do. Lat 44°20'08", long 73°33'12", at bridge on 2085 
Reber Road, 0.4 mi Ie southeast of Fai rview 
Cemetery, and 1.0 mi les southwest of 
Deerhead, Essex County, N. Y. 


do. Lat 44°17'23", tong 73°36'40", at bridge, 2.7 4.46 
miles northwest of Lewis, Essex County, N. Y. 


do. Lat 44°17'07", long 73°34'26", at bridge on 6009 
county road off U.S. Highway 9, 0.8 mi Ie 
northwest of Lewi s, Essex County, N. Y. 


Lake Champlain Lat 44°03'40", long 73°30'36", at bridge on 17.5 
county road at Moriah Center, Essex County,N.Y 


do. Lat 44°03'09", long 73°28'47", at bridge along 2701 
Forge Hollow Road, 1.0 mi Ie west of Port 
Henry, Essex County, N. Y. 


104 - 


6.59 


8/18/66 


12/31/48 
3/27/53 
8/23/66 
8/23/66 


8/22/66 


8/22/66 


8/22/66 


12/31/48 
8/ 4/54 
8/ 3/66 
9/22/38 
12/31/48 
3/27/53 
8/ 5/54 
8/23/66 
8/22/66 


8/23/66 


6/29/63 
8/ 3/66 


7/28/66 


8/23/66 


8/23/66 


8/23/66 


8/23/66 


8/23/66 


7/27/66 


7/27/66 


8,980 

 
5,000 - 
119 
2.61 2./ 


.27 2./ 


.32 !./ 


I. 79 2./ 


4,060 !?/ 
14.5 / 
13.2 2. 
12,000 

 
9,690 h/ 
5,300 - 
72.6 
218 
.17 !!/ 


1.13 Y 


1,750 !?/ 
2 . 34 2./ 


6.15 !!/ 


6.40 Y 


. 58 !!/ 


.74 2./ 


1.48 !!/ 


I. 88 .!!/ 


4.86 2./ 


6.76 2./ 



Appendix 3 


Discharge measurements made at miscellaneous sites in the 
Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region (continued) 


Drainage Measurements 
Station No. Station name Tributary to Location area I Discharge 
(sq mi) Date (cfs) 


2768.41 


2768.42 


2768.70 


2790.04 


2806.4 


3119.9 


3130 


3144.50 


3152.5 


3154.9 


3159.5 


3159.6 


3160.3 


3161.66 


3161.7 


3162.2 


3167 


!/ Base flow. 


Putnam Creek Tributary Putnam Creek 
at Crown Point Center 


Putnam Creek at Crown 
Point Center 


Fivemi Ie Creek near 
Ti conde roga 


Trout Brook near 
Ti conde roga 


Halfway Creek at 
Kanes Fall s 


Fi shing Brook near 
Long Lake 


Cedar River near 
I nd i an Lake 


Squaw B rook near 
I nd i an Lake 


Vande rwhacke r Brook 
near Ai den La i r 


Balm of Gi lead Brook 
at North River 


Baker Brook at 
Bakers Mills 


Baker Brook near 
Bakers Mills 


Glen Brook at 
The Glen 


Niagara Brook at 
at Blue Ridge 


The B ranch at 
Blue Ridge 


Paradox Creek 
at Paradox 


Kelso Brook near 
Olmstedvi lIe 


Lake Champ I a i n 


Lake George 
Outlet 


Wood Creek 


Rich Lake 


Hudson Rive r 


I nd i an Lake 


Boreas River 


Hudson River 


North Creek 


Hudson Rive r 


The Branch 


Schroon River 


do. 


Mi nerva Stream 


Lake Champlain basin--Continued 


Lat 43°56'28", long 73°27'56", at bridge on dl rt 
road at N. Y. S. Fish Hatche ry, O. I mil e 
upstream from mouth, and 0.2 mi Ie southeast 
of Crown Point Center, Essex County, N. Y. 


Lat 43°56'31", long 73°27'54", at bridge at 4600 
State Fish Hatchery, 200 ft downstream from 
unnamed tributary, and 0.2 mi Ie east of 
Crown Point Center, Essex County, N. Y. 


do. 


Lat 43°52'51", long 73°25'23", at bridge on 7.37 
county road 2.1 mi les north of Ticonderoga, 
Essex County, N. Y. 


Lat 43°48'40", long 73°29'34", at bridge on 1306 
county road, 0.4 mi Ie west of Valley View 
Church and 3.9 mi les southwest of Ticonderoga, 
Essex County, N. Y. 


Lat 43°25'37", long 73°29'52", at bridge on 79.1 
county road at Kanes Falls, Washington County, 
N. Y. 


Upper Hudson River basin 


Lat 43°58'42", long 74°20'15", at bridge on 1001 
State Highway 28N, 4.5 mi les east of Long 
Lake, Hami I ton County, N. Y. 


Lat 43°46'51", long 74°18'02", at bridge on 8503 
State Highway 28, 1.7 miles west of Indian 
Lake, Hamilton County, N. Y. 


Lat 43°44'26", long 74°17'43", at bridge on 8.54 
State Highway 30, 3.6 mi les southwest of 
Indian Lake, Hamilton County, N. Y. 


Lat 43°47'49", long 74°02'17", at bridge on 14.1 
Vanderwhacker Mountain Road off State 
Highway 28N, 0.4 mile upstream from mouth 
and 1.3 mi les northwest of Aiden Lai r, 
Essex County, N. Y. 


Lat 43°44'20", long 74°02'54", at mouth, at 5.63 
bridge on State Highway 28 at North River, 
Warren County, N. Y. 


Lat 43°36'55", long 74°01'38", at bridge on 6035 
Edwards Hill Road at Bakers Mill s, Warren 
County, N. Y. 


do. 


Lat 43°37'56", long 74°00'27", at bridge on 7.87 
dirt road off State Hwy. 8,0.1 mile down- 
stream from Ross Lake and 1.6 mi les north- 
east of Bakers Mi II s, Warren County, N. Y. 


Lat 43°35'06", long 73°51'52", at bridge on 20,0 
State Highway 28, 0.1 mi Ie upstream from 
mouth and 0.2 mi Ie north of The Glen, 
Warren County, N. Y. 


Lat 43°57'30", long 73°47'24", at farm crossing, 
1 mile west of Blue Ridge, Essex County, N.Y. 
Lat 43°57'21", long 73°46'04", off town road 60.7 
off U.S. Highway 9, 1.0 mi Ie east of Blue 
Ridge, Essex County, N. y. and 1.8 mi les 
ups t ream from mou th. 


Lat 43°53'37", long 73°38'47", at bridge on 24.b 
di rt road off State Highway 73, 0.2 mi Ie 
north of Paradox, Essex County, N. y. 


Lat 43°46'05", long 73°57'28", at bridge on 4.74 
State Hi ghway 28N, 1.4 mi les west of 
Olmstedvi lIe, Essex County, N. Y. 


105 - 


5080 


6/30/66 
8/15/66 


7/26/66 
9/ 1/66 
9/13/66 


7/15/66 


7/26/66 


7/13/66 


10/13/66 


10/14/66 


10/18/66 


10/18/66 


10/12/66 


10/12/66 


10/12/66 


10/14/66 


7/20/ I 0 
10/17/66 
10/17/66 


10/17/66 


10/12/66 


1.20 !!o/ 
.71 !!o/ 


5.03 !!o/ 
4.68 ! / / 
4.42 !!o 


1.08 !!o/ 


2.43 !/ 


25.7!/ 


11.8 !/ 


65.7 !/ 


8.99 !/ 


6.83 / 


4.18 !/ 


3.08 !!of 


2. 74 !!o/ 


5.36 !/ 


I
:go !/ 
36.5 !!o/ 


7.33 !!o/ 


0.88 !!of 



Appendix 3 


Discharge measurements made at miscellaneous sites in the 
Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region (continued) 


Drainage Measurements 
Station No. Station name Tributary to Location area I Discharge 
(sq mi) Date (cfs) 


3168.2 


3169 


3182 


3183 


3189 


3210.5 


3210.6 


3210.7 


3210.9 


3219.9 


3220.1 


3226 


3226.8 


3230.5 


3254 


3287.5 


3291. 50 


Meade Pond Out let 
at Chestertown 


Upper Hudson River basin--Continued 
Lat 43°39'14", long 73°48'25", at bridge on U.S. 
Highway 9 and State Highway 8, on west edge 
of Chestertown, Warren County, N. Y. 


Che s te r Creek 


Brant Lake Outlet 
at Brant Lake 


Schroon River 


Lat 43°40'34", long 73°45'09", at bridge on 
State Highway 8 at Brant Lake, Warren 
County, N. Y. 


Stony Creek near Hudson River 
Stony Creek 


Lat 43°24'57", long 73°54'42", at bridge on 
town road just off County Highway 19 and 
1.1 mi les southeast of Stony Creek, 
Warren County, N. Y. 


Wolf Creek near do. 
Had I ey 


Lat 43°21'26", long 73°52'''2'', at bridge on 
County Hi ghway I, 3.2 mi les north of Hadley, 
Saratoga County, N. Y. 


East Branch Sacandaga Sacandaga Ri ver 
River at Oregon 


Lat 43°32'54", long 74°07'56", off State 
Highway 8, 0.9 mi Ie southwest of Oregon, 
Wa r ren Coun t y, N. Y. 


West Stony Creek at do. 
Ernst Corners 


Lat 43°09'50", long 74°22'03", along Barlow 
Road, 100 ft downstream from unnamed 
tributary, and 0.4 mi Ie northeast of 
Ernst Corners, Fulton County, N. Y. 


Pinnacle Creek at West Stony Cree 
Lindsley Corners 


Lat 43°10'38", long 74°21'20", at bridge on 
Barlow Road, 0.2 mi Ie upstream from mouth 
and 0.8 mi Ie northeast of Lindsley Corners, 
Ful ton County, N. Y. 


West Stony Creek near Sacandaga River 
Lindsley Corners 


Lat 43°11'02", long 74°20'14", at bridge on 
town road, 1.8 mi les northeast of Lindsley 
Corners, Fulton County, N. Y. 


North Branch West West Stony Creek 
Stony Creek at 
Uppe r Ben son 


Lat 43°14'32", long 74°19'57", at bridge on 
County Highway 6, 0.4 mi Ie southeast 
of Upper Benson, Hami 1 ton County, N. Y. 


Bear Creek near Hope East Stony Creek 


Lat 43°17'59", long 74°10'39", at bridge on 
county road, 0.4 mi Ie upstream from mouth 
and 3.5 mi les east of Hope, Hami I ton County, 
N. Y. 


East Stony Creek above Sacandaga River 
Northville 


Lat 43°15'43", long 74°12'27", at bridge on 
town road in Hami lton County, 0.5 mi Ie 
upstream from mouth and 3.0 mi les north of 
Northvi lIe, Ful ton County, N. Y. 


Cranberry Creek Sacandaga 
at Cranberry Creek Reservoi r 


Lat 43°09'23", long 74°13'06", at bridge on 
State Hi ghway 30, 0.1 mi Ie north of 
Cranberry Creek, Ful ton County, N. Y. 


Mayfield Creek at 
R i cev i 11 e 


do. 


Lat 43°05'50", long 74°16'47", at bridge on 
State Highway 30A, 0.1 mile south of 
Ricevi lie, Fulton County, N. Y. 


Ski nner B rook at do. 
Vall Mi 11 s 


Lat 43°02'59", long 74°14'06", at bridge on 
State Highway 29, 0.9 mi Ie west of Vai 1 
Hi 11 s, Ful ton County, N. y. 


Hudson River Tributary Hudson River 
No.3 near Corinth 


Lat 43°16'05", long 73°50'20", at bridge on 
U. S. Highway 9N, O. 1 mil e ups t ream from 
mouth, and 1.5 mi les north of Corinth, 
Saratoga County, N. Y. 


Tuttle Brook near do. 
Schylerville 


Lat 43°09'47", long 73°35'29", at bridge on 
River Road, 0.25 mi Ie upstream from mouth, 
and 4.2 miles north of Schylerville, 
Saratoga County, N. Y. 


Steele Brook near Batten Ki 11 
Shu shan 


Lat 43°06'42", long 73°19'08", at culvert on 
town road, 1.9 mi les northeast of Shushan, 
Washington County, N. Y. 


a/ Base flow. 

/ Peak discharge. 


106 - 


25.3 


95,2 


7,65 


10/14/66 


10/14/66 


42.1 


3/31/51 
4/ 5/52 
10/ 4/66 


12,2 


10/ 4/66 


53.9 


10/12/66 


14.2 


10/13/66 


11.2 


10/13/66 


27.7 


1 0/13/66 


10/13/66 


4075 


10/ 7/66 


8/23/10 
7/24/11 
10/ 7/66 


8,08 


10/ 7/66 


10/13/66 


4.52 


10/ 7/66 


2.70 


10/18/66 


3.78 


10/11/66 


1.72 


10/ 5/66 


3 . 04 !!/ 


1.36 


b/ 
6,730 b/ 
3,4

.4 !,/ 


5.33 !,/ 


20.8 !,/ 


5.26 !,/ 


31.5!'/ 


29.6 !,/ 


39.1!,/ 


. 79 !,/ 


7.36 
10.9 / 
44.6 !, 


3.22 !,/ 


5.57 !,/ 


1.10!'/ 


.38 !!./ 


1. 10 !!./ 


.76 !!./ 



Appendix 3 


Discharge measurements made at miscellaneous sites in the 
Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region (continued) 


Drainage .....ur_tt 
Station Noo Station name Tributary to Location area I Diachar.e 
(sq mi) Date (ofs) 


3291.52 


3291. 54 


3292.2 


3292.3 


3292 .4 


3292.5 


3292.7 


3 2 92.9 


3293.2 


3295.2 


3296 


3296.10 


3296.12 


3296.2 


!!/ Base flow. 


Steele Brook near 
Shu shan 


Steele Brook at 
Shu shan 


Black Creek near 
near Cos sayuna 


Black Creek 
near Salem 


West Beaver Brook 
near Salem 


Black Creek 
near Salem 


Whi te Creek 
above Sa I em 


Beave r B rook at 
Salem 


Black Creek at 
Fi tch Point 


Trout B rook at 
Center Falls 


Fly Creek at Fly 
Summ i t 


Fly Creek Tributary 
near Fly Summi t 


Fly Creek near Fly 
Summi t 


Fly Creek near 
Greenwi ch 


Ba t ten K i I ! 


Black Creek 


Batten Ki II 


Black Creek 


White Creek 


Bat ten Kill 


do. 


do. 


Fly Creek 


Batten Kill 


do. 


Upper Hudson River basin--Continued 
Lat 43°06'07", long 73°19'29", at culvert on 
town road, 1.2 mi les northeast of Shushan, 
Washington County, N. Y. 


do. 


Lat 43°05'35", long 73°19'38", at bridge on 
county road, 0.8 mi Ie east of Shushan, 
Washington County, N. Y. 


do. 


Lat 43° 11'14", long 73°22'39", at bridge on 
Black Creek Road, 2.5 mi les east of 
Cossayuna, Washington County, N. Y. 


do. 


Lat 43° 10'35", long 73°22'08", at bridge on 
McKinney Road, 2.1 miles west of Salem, 
Washington County, N. Y. 


Lat 43°10'35", long 73°21'40", at bridge on 
State Highway 153, 1.7 miles west of Salem, 
Washington County, N. Y. 


Lat 43°09'38", long 73°22'13", at bridge on 
Cemetery Road, 2.3 mi les southwest of 
Salem, Washington County, N. Y. 


Lat 43°11'45", long 73°17'49", at bridge on 
Perkins Hollow Road, 2.1 mi les northeast 
of Salem, Washington County, N. Y. 


Lat 43°10'12", long 73°20'10", at bridge on 
State Highway 153 at Salem, Washington 
Coun ty, N. Y. 


Lat 43°09'06", long 73°22'58", at bridge on 
town road off State Highway 29,0.2 mile 
northwest of Fitch Point, Washington County, 
N.Y., and 0.5 mile upstream from mouth. 


Lat 43°05'56", long 73°27'16", at culvert on 
State Highway 29, 0.3 mi Ie east of Center 
Falls, Washington County, N. Y. 
Lat 43°01'27", lonq 73°29'02", at culvert on 
County Highway 74, 008 mi Ie north of Fly 
SUl11T1it, Washington County, N. Y. 


Lat 43°02'02", long 73°28'37", at culvert 
under County Highway 74A, 1.6 mi les north 
of Fly Summit, Washington County, N. Y. 


Lat 43°02'18", long 73°28'56", at bridge on 
County Highway 74, 2.7 mi les north of 
Fly Summit, Washington County, N. Y. 
Lat 43°02'49", long 73°29'48", at bridge on 
County Highway 74, 3.2 mi les south of 
Greenwich, Washington County, N. Y. 


107 - 


27.8 


108 


2.43 


101 5/66 


2085 


101 5/66 


49.1 


10/12/66 


50.3 


10/11/66 


6.66 


10/12/66 


5708 


10/11/66 


10/12166 


5.69 


10/12/66 


101 5166 


2.73 


101 5/66 


1.83 


10/11/66 


3027 


10/11166 


6083 


10/11/66 


7.57 


10/11/66 


2.10 !ol 


3015 !ol 


34.9 !ol 


40.8 !.I 


4.66 !ol 


48 0 4 !,I 


16.0 !/ 


4.52 !I 


102 !I 


1.86 !I 


.01 !I 


.97 !I 


1.85 !I 


2 . 55 !ol 



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Appendix 6 


Logs of selected wells and test holes in the 
Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region 


(See "Well-Numbering :'yslem" in plate 1 for explanation of well numbers) 


CLI NTON COUNTY CLI NTON COUNTY (Cont i nued) 
Th I ck- 
ness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


442718N0733817.1: Log by a local driller. 
Sand, gravel and boulders.... .......... .......... 
Sand, dense...................................... 
Clay............................................ . 
Sand, den se. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand and gravel, dense........................... 
Bed rock. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 


442735N0733833.1: Log by Dames & Moore, consulting 
engineers & geologists. 
Sand, si I ty; dark brown; wi th roots and organic 
matte r. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, si I ty; tan; moi st and dense................ 
Sand, medium; tan, gray; with some gravel, well 
graded; moist (hit 2 boulders)................. 
Sand, fine, slightly silty; brownish-gray; with 
traces of clay (very dense til1)............... 
Granite, medium-grained; hard, dense weathered; 
gray to pink................................... 
Gnei ss, black and whi te banded; unweathered, 
occasional closed unfi lIed joints.............. 
Gran i te. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gneiss, weathered and broken around 105 and 
140 ft......................................... 
Gabbro, fine-grained; hard, dense; dark gray 
to black....................................... 
Granite and gneiss, medium to coarse texture; 
dense; fractured; pink and gray; some 
pegmatitic zones and serpentine................ 
Serpenti
e,.medium hard to hard; green to black; 
some blotl te................................... 


443437N073271 I. I : Log by King Brothers, dri 1lers. 
Sand and clay.................................... 
Bedrock... .. ........ ............................. 


44345700732816.1: Log by King Brothers, dri 1lers. 
Sand............................................ . 
Clay. . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . . .. .. 
Bedrock...................... . ................... 


443540N0733044.I: Log by StUoct Brothers, Inc. 
Clay.. .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. . .... . .................... 
Clay, sandy............," . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, clayey; little water....................... 
Sand, clayey............... ..................... 
Sand, fine gravel; water. ....................... 
G rave I. dirty.................................... 
Clay, sandy...................................... 
Sand, clayey..................................... 
Sandstone.................. ..................... 


443603N0735114.1: Log by Dames & Moore, consulting 
engineers and geologists. 
Till, composed of 1 i gh t brown s i 1 ty sand with 
gravel and boulders; very dense................ 
Sand, fine to medium, reddish-brown; with some 
gravel; dense boulder.......................... 
Sand, silty, dense, reddish-brown; with some 
grave I................ ......................... 
Till, dense; composed of brownish-gray si I ty 
sand with some gravel and boulders; moist...... 
S i 1 t, sandy, clayey; mo is t; with some grave I ; 
bou I de r. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Syenite, medium to coarSe grained crystall ine 
structure, hard, dense J weathered, gray; seams 
to 60 ft; gneissoid with some lineation of 
dark minerals at 40' - 90' and faint gneissic 
banding dips 50' - 80'. Occasional closed 
unfil1ed joints, dip 45' - 90°. Fractured with 
weathered seams 00-75 ft). 
Sch i st, hard, dense, med i urn gra i ned crysta 11 i ne 
texture, dark gray......................... .... 
Syenite, as above, more fractured, some 
weathe ring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


44361300733029.1: Log by King Brothers, dri llers. 
Sand and clay.................................... 
Grave 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 


44361700 73292 7.1: Log by N. Y. State Dept. of Pub Ii c 
Works technician. 
Sand............................................ . 
Sand and S i It.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, 5 iI t, and grave 1.............. ............. 
Sand, 5 iI t, clay and trace of grave I............. 


443620N0732932.1: Log by N.Y. State Dept. 0f Publ ic 
Works techn i ci an. 
Sdnd and grave I.................................. 
Sand, 5 i It and grave 1......................... ... 
Limestone, soft.................................. 


443817N0732915.1: Log by King Brothers, dri Ilers. 
Sand...............................,............ . 
Clay..............,............................. . 
Bedrock.......................,................. . 


12 
36 
12 
23 
5 
5 


27 
26 33 
11 59 
25 70 
5 95 
60 100 
21 160 
39 181 
220 
25 0 
154 25 
10 0 
25 10 
16 51 
10 0 
15 10 
5 25 
18 30 
3 48 
I 51 
3 52 
10 55 
5 65 


11 


10 


13 


135 46 
10 181 
34 191 
62 0 
3 62 
14 0 
41 14 
18 55 
50 73 
6 0 
22.5 6 
98.5 28.5 
26 0 
14 26 
82 40 


443836N0732752.1: Log by Corps of Engineers. 
Fill. . . .. . .. . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . .. .. . .. . . , . 0 ., . . . . . . 
Sand, S i 1 ty... . ,., . . . .. . . . .. . ... . .. . . . ... . . , . . .. 
Sand, clayey.....,............ 0 .. , . . .. .. . .. 0 . . . . 


o 
12 
48 
60 
83 
88 


443903N0733223.1: Log by King Brothers, drillers. 
Sand. .. . .. .. . . .. . . . . . .. . , . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. 
Sand and clay.................................. 0 
Sand and grave I . . 0 ., .. . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . .... . . , " . 


443928N0732916.1: Log by King Brothers, dri llers. 
Sand.. . . . . .. . .. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. .. 
Clay (T I II ). . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. .. 
Bedrock,. 0.................................,.... 


443943N0732806.1: Log by Corps of Engineers. 
Fill. . . .. ... .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . , . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 
Grave 1, sandy....,.............,.. 0............. 


443954N0734350.1: Log by Harold Seymour, dri Iler. 
Sand and grave I, dry............................ 
Sandstone, rotten............................... 
Dirt; sandy..................................... 
Gravel; water................................... 


444043N0732654.1: Log by Corps of Engineers. 
Fill. .. . . . .. . . .. .. . . .. . . .. . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine.................. 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, grave 11 y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


444057N0734102.1: Log by Donald Racette, owner. 
Sand and some grave 1 . . . .... .. . . . . .. . . ... . . .. . .. . 
Clay, blue...................................... 
Hardpan................... 0................... o. 
Clay, blue and ye 11 ow.. .. .. . ... .. ...... .. ..... .. 
Gravel; water bearing; over layer of hardpan.... 
Clay, ye lION. . . . . .. ... . .. ... .. .. , .. . . .. .. .. . .... 
Gravel; water bearing... ............ .... .......... 


444147N0733352.1: Log by (1). 
Pleistocene deposi ts...,..........,............. 
Beekmantown group, transl tional................. 
Theresa formation (1)....................,...... 
Potsdam sandstone............................... 


444239N0733331.1: Log by King Brothers, drillers. 
Sand.. . . . .... . . . . . . . . .. . , . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . , . . .. 
Sand and grave I. . . . . . . . .. . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, gravel, clay.............................. 


12 


444255N0733431 . I: Log by Layne-New York Co. 
Sand and black earth............................ 
Sand, fine and silt............................. 
Clay, gray, mixed with silt and very little 
grave 1. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
(Very hard-like solid rock)..................... 
Sand, fine, clean; making some water............ 
Si 1 t............................................ 
Sand, fine, brown, loose; water................... 
Sandstone, hard................................. 
Sandstone, starting to soften................... 
S i I t............................................ 
Gravel, fine, and sand, very little water....... 
S I It; ve ry t i gh t.. . .. . . .. .. . . .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . . 
Clay, red....................................... 
Sand, very fine, clean.......................... 


23 


33 


444308N0733333.1: Log by Layne-New York Co, 
Soil, brown, with brown sand mixed.............. 
Clay, I i gh t gray................................ 
Gravel, sma 11 , light colored, mixed with clay... 
Silt and fine sand.............................. 
Gravel, mixed, and fine sand.................... 
Gravel, small, light in color................... 
Rock or I edge................................... 
Silt, gray and fine sand mixed with clay........ 
Gravel, fine, and sand; very I ittle water....... 
Silt, brown and fine sand....................... 
S i It, 1 i gh t brown, ve ry t i gh to .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 
Sand, fine......".............................. 
Sand and fine gravel............................ 
SI It, dark brown..... ...... ............ ......... 


44431600732657.1: Log by N.Y. State Dept. of Public 
works technician. 
Water..... .......... . . . . .., . . . . ..... " . . .... . . . . 
Peat.......................................... .. 
Clay, gray...................................... 
Sand, fine, gray................................ 
Sand, fine, gray; clay and grave1............... 
Sand, fine, gray; si It and gravel; rock 
fragments..... .......... ................, ..... 
Sand, fine to medium; gravel.................... 
Sand, fine, gray; gravel; some silt............. 
Rock...o. 0 '0......,.......0... .0.... 0..... ...... 


124 - 


Th i ck- 
ness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
0.5 0 
6.5 .5 
18 7 
12 0 
68 12 
5 80 
34 0 
26 34 
10 60 
.5 0 
25 .5 
75 0 
30 75 
115 105 
0 220 
3 
6 
16 
12 0 
23 12 
( 1) 35 
( ?) ( 1) 
8 60 
178 68 
.5 246 
20 0 
500 20 
50(1) 520 
775+ 570(1) 
30 0 
5 30 
100 35 
5 
35 
18 40 
4 48 
3 62 
25 65 
10 90 
25 100 
5 125 
3 130 
4 133 
25 137 
4 162 
41 166 
15 0 
28 15 
3 43 
4 46 
3 50 
4 53 
3 57 
34 60 
4 94 
65 98 
33 163 
4 196 
10 200 
3 210 
3 0 
5 3 
4 8 
21 12 
17 33 
15 50 
15 65 
14 80 
94 



Appendix 6 


logs of selected wells and test holes in the 
lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region 


CLINTON COUNTY (Continued) 


444606N0734843.1: Log by local well driller. 
Sandy clay and bou 1 de r s (t i II) .. .. .. . . . . .. .. .. .. . 
Grave 11 y sand and bou I de r s (t i 11 ) . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 
Grave 11 y sand (t i II ) . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay; sandy s lIt. . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. , , ." . . ... . 
Sand, fine.....................................,. 
Sand or rock (cemented sand(?)).................. 
Sand and grave I. .. . . . . . . . 0 . . . .. . .. . ., . . . .. . 0 . . .. , 


444615N0734924.1: Log by Dames & Moore, consul ting 
engineers and geolog1 sts. 
Sand and gravel, silty, reddish-brown; Some 
decayed vegetation.......... o 0................, 
Sand and gravel, silty, light brown.............. 
Bou I de r. . . . . . . 0 0 . . 0 0 , . . . . . . . . , , . . . . , 0 . . . . 0 . 0 . . 0 . , 
Sand, clayey, 1 ight brown; with gravel; grades 
to more clay and si It at depth; some 
bou I ders. . .... . ., .. . '.0... . . . . ... 0.0.. .. " , . ... 
Sand, gravel, and boulders; si lty, clayey, 
grayi sh-brown; coarser and more boulders 
at depth. 0'......... 0....'......".....,..... 0' 
Gravels, poorly-graded; gravel-sand mixtures, 
no fine s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 


Granl te gnei ss, fai rly coarse crystal 1 Ine 
structure, pink; weathered, decomposed; shows 
weathering at about 85, 135, and 200 ft........ 


445444N0734902.1: Log by Dames & Moore, consulting 
engineers and geologists. 
Sand, silty, brown; with decayed vegetation...... 
Sand, silty, brown; with gravel and cobbles...... 
Sandstone, quartzite, medium grained, very hard, 
dense, tan-gray, unweathered................... 
Sandstone, quartzitic, medium grained, very hard, 
dense, I ight gray, unweathered; occasionally 
grading to a gray and tan si I Iceous sandstone. 
(Sandstone started becoming coarse grained and 
cross bedded from 90 ft.) Iron staining and 
sl ight weathering at bottom of hole. Lost water 
at 125 gph at 35 ft depth and at 250 gph at 
150 ft depth................. o .................. 
445556N0732321.1: Log by Russell Fredrick, driller. 
Clay. . . . . , , . . .. . . .. . o. . , . . .. . 0 . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . 0 " . . 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . .. .. . .. .. . . . . . .. . .. . . . . 
Sand and g rave I (sma 11 grave 1 ). .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. . .. . 


445803N0733802.1: Log by Dames & Moore, consulting 
engi neers and geo log I stso 
Sand, fin? to med I um, brown; wi th decayed 
vegetat Ion.. .... . ... " ..... ... . ......... ... .... . .. 
Sand, fine 
o medium, gray; with Some gravel..o... 
Sand, fine, brownish-gray; with some gravel....... 
Sand, silty, brownish-gray; grading to gray and 
silt grading out at depth....................... 
Sand, fine to coarse, brownish gray, with gravel.. 
Sand, silty, light tan............................ 
Sand and gravel, fine to coarse, light gray....... 
Quartz I te, med I um gra I ned, very hard and dense, 
I ight gray. Locally grades to hard siliceous 
and ferruginous sandstone (Occasional 80° 
fractures wi th secondary mi nera lizat Ion)... ..... 


450008N0732824.1: Log by Dames & Moore, consulting 
engineers and geologists. 
Sand, silty, brown; with some gravel and roots.... 
Quartzite, medium grained, very hard and dense, 
gray (dip generally 5° - 10°, occasional 
80° - 90° fractures with minor secondary 
mineral izatlon)................................. 19 
Sandstone, si I Iceous, locally ferruginous; with 
thin hard black shale layers increasing In 
number with depth; many thin shale layers at 
145 ft. Shaly and ferruginous at 175 ft 
(Vertical fractures were encountered at 165 ft, 
some dri II Ing water was lost at 190 ft and all 
water was lost at 200 ft, at 225 ft some water 
returned.)................. .....0... ....... ..... 


ESSEX COUNTY 


435146N0734411.1: Log by George Lucia, drll1er. 
Sand.........................."... 0.......... 0... 
Clay........... 0...'............................. 0 
Rock. . .. . .. . .. .. .. . . . . . ... . . ...... .. .. .. . . .. .. .. . . 


435208N0732625.1: Log by William Stanley, owner. 
Clay........................................ 0..... 
Sand and grave I. . .... .. . . ... .. . .. ..... .. .. . 0 . ...0. 
Bedrock................................,......... . 


435223N0734504. I: Log by (?). 
Grave 1, dry, bony................................. 
Silt, trace sand, wet............................. 
Rock........,.........o......................... .. 


Th I ck- 
ness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
20 0 
10 20 
40 30 
10 70 
10 80 
10 90 
20 100 
0 
2 
10 
25 13 
22 38 
23 60 
142 83 


212 13 
20 0 
5 20 
10 25 
1 
3 
14 
17 18 
15 35 
2 50 
12 52 
161 64 


205 20 
18(?) 0 
22 (?) 18(?) 
67 40(?) 
80 0 
70 80 
3 150 
60 0 
46 60 
242 106 


ESSEX COUNTY (Cont I nued) 


435229N0734448.1: Log by Clifton Stowell, owner 
Sand, white; fine at depth..................... 
Gravel.,..................................,., .. 


435625N0732728. I: Log by Mrs. Harvey Wood, owner. 
Sand and s I It, . . . . . . . . . . , . . , . . . . . , , . . . . . 0 . , . 0 . . 
Clay, . . .. , .. . . . . . .. , , . . . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. , , .. . .. 
Grave 1 , .. .. 0 . , , ... .. , .. . .. . , . , . .. . .. , .. ..0 .. . . . 


435646N0732742 , I : Log by U.S. Geological Survey 
personne I. 
Sand, gravel and boulders with considerable 
s i I t and clay...,....."..... 0 .. 0 , 0 . .. . , . .. .. 
Bedrock......, 0.....................,.......... 


435647N0732744.I: Log by UoSo Geological Survey 
pe rsonne I. 
Sand, very fine, silty, some fine to medium 
sand 0 . . . .. . . 0 0 . . , . . . , 0 0 , 0 .. o. 00. . 0 0 . . . . 0 . .. 0 0 
Sand, fine to very coarse, silty. 0............. 
Sand, medill11 to very coarse, some silt, some 
rounded grave 1 u
 to 1 Inch d i ame te r... .. .. .. 
Sand, coarse to very coarse, some fine sand 
and silt, gravel up to 4 Inches In diameter.. 
Sand, fine, sllty.....,.....oo............o.... 
Bed rock, wea the red . .. , .. . .. . .... , . , , . .. .. .. .. 0 , 


435647N0732744.2: Log by U.S. Geological Survey 
personne 1. 
Sand, ve ry fine, Some clay and s 11 t. .. .. . . .. . . , 
Sand, med i lI11 to coarse, Some s I I t and grave I.,. 
Sand, medlll11 to very coarse, considerable 
grave I.. .. ...... . . ... , . . . . .... . . . . . .. 0 , , , . . .. 
Sand, fine to medium......................."..... 


435647N0732745.1: Log by UoS. Geological Survey 
personnel. 
Sand, very fine, clay and silt................. 
Sand, fine to very coarse, some boulders, 
s i I t and clay 0 .. . . .. . . . . .. 0 ... . .. . ... .. . . . .. . 
Sand and gravel, Some sllt..o.....o............. 
Sand, considerable clay and silt............... 


435648N0732748.1: Log by U.S. Geological Survey 
pe rsonne 1 , 
Sand, very fine to fine, some silt and clay; 
brown..... D.."...."..... 0.......0.. 0......".0 


Sand, fine to very coarse, gravel and boulders, 
some s il t and clay........................." 
Sand, very fine to very coarse, some s II t 
and clay.... 0 0 0.... 0 0'.... 00...... 0..0.... 0.0 
Bedrock.. 0............. 0.......000.....000....' 


435652N0732744.1: Log by U.So Geological Survey 
per Sonne I. 
S i I t, sandy....".............................. 
Silt, clayey fine sand......................... 
Gravel, fine, silty...........................o 
Sand, fine, s i I ty. . .. .. .. . 0 . .. .. . .. . .. .. . . .. .. . 
Bed rock. . .... . . " ... .. . ... . . ... ... .. .. 0.. . . . .. . 


435653N0732742.1: Log by U.S. Geological Survey 
pe rsonne I . 
Sand, fine, s i I ty. . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . ... o. . . . .. 0 . 
Sand, fine, s I I ty, with cobb I e s. " .. .. .. o. . .. .. 
Sand, fine, s i 1 ty, clayey, wi th I so I ated 
pebb Ie s and cobb I e s. . . . . . . 0 . . . .. . . . .. . . 0 . .. . . 
Sand, silty, gravelly, some clay............... 
Bed roc ko . . .. . .. .. . .. 0 . . . . .. . .. . . . .. .. . . . .. .. . . . 


435735N0732443.1: Log by Tom Clark, former owner. 
Sand. , . .......... . .... .... o. .. ... 0.0.0.... . o. . . 
Clay..... 0 ....... 00..0..'.....0. 0 ..... 0 0'....., 
Sand................ 0....... 0...000....".... o. 


435933N0732554.1: Log by King Brothers, dri llers. 
Clay, terra-cotta...................."..... 0.. 
Clay, blue..................................... 
Qu i cksand and grave I...... 0.. .... ... 0......... . 
Clay. 0.... 0..... 0... 0..... 0 0.... 0' 00..000...... 
Sand; broken stone.. 0 . ... .. . .... . . .. . . .. . . . . . .. 


440129N0734110.1: Log by NoY. State Dept. of Public 
Works techn I ci an. 
Sandy loam; brown'.....".... 0 . .. . 0 . . . . . . .. . .. . . 
Sand and gravel, coarse; brown..u............. 
Sand, coarse, brown............................... 
Sand, brown..................,. o. .. . . . o. .. 0 . 0 0 . 
Sand, fine, brown; trace 5 i 1 t. .. .. . . . . .. . . . . DO. 
Sand, brown. D... .. .. D.. . .... .. DO. .. D..... .... . 0 
Sand, fine........................... 0 . . . .. . .. 0 
Sand, very fine to fine; trace silt............ 
Sand, ve ry fine; gray.......................... 
Sand, fine...,................................. 
G ra ve 1 . .. . .. . . .. .. .. , . . .. .. . .. . .. . . . .. . . . .. . .. . 
Sandstone..... . .... " . . ... .... ., ..... 0 . . . 0 0...0 


125 


Th i ck- 
ness Dep th 
(feet) (feed 
210 0 
22 210 
96 0 
25 96 
5 121 
47 0 
47 
13 0 
24 13 
37 
15 44 
22 59 
16 81 
13 0 
34 13 
12 47 
2 59 
12 
30 12 
c 42 
8 47 
14 
14 14 
37 28 
65 
8 0 
33 8 
4 41 
6 45 
51 


22 4 
13 26 
39 
10 0 
245 10 
3 255 
18 0 
82 18 
26 100 
I 126 
3 127 
2 0 
13 2 
10 15 
13 25 
10 38 
10 48 
32 58 
68 90 
7 158 
32 165 
3 197 
15 200 



Appendix 6 


Logs of selected wells and test holes in the 
Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region (continued) 


ESSEX COUNTY (Con t i nued) 


440957N0733502.1: Log Ly N.Y. State Dept. of Public 
Works technician. 
Si I t, some sand and vegetat ion................... 
Silt, some sand, trace of fine gravel and 
cobb I e s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Silt. some sand. trace clay. and cobbles......... 
Sand. some s i It; trace clay. fine grave I and 
cobb Ie s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand. some cobbles............................... 
Rock. hard. decomposed........................... 


441144N0733145.1: Log by N.Y. State Dept. of Public 
Works techn i ci an. 
Top so i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand. fine to coarse; some fine gravel; trace 
silt with some boulders........................ 
S i It, some clay; ve ry s tiff. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 
S i It, some clay and sand; ve ry s tiff. .. . . .. . . . . . . 
Sand, fine to coarse. very dense; trace fine 
g rave I and s i It. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
S i 1 t, trace clay; med i um to fine s tiff sand...... 
Rock, decomposed, st iff.......................... 


441227N0733026.1: Log by N.Y. State Dept. of Public 
Works technician. 
Topso i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Si It, trace clay, fine to coarse sand; plastic; 
s tiff. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . 
Sand, fine to medium, some siit; trace of fine 
grave I. . . . . . . . ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . , 
Sand, fine to coarse; trace silt and fine 
grave I . . . . . . . ., . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine; si I t; some fine gravel, cobbles and 
sma il bou 1 de r s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gran i te. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


441455N0733001.1: Log by N. Y. State Dept. of Pub I ic 
Works technician. 
Sand, fine, loose; some si It..................... 
Sand, fine fi rm; trace si It...................... 
Grave1, compact; coarse sand, trace silt......... 
S i I t. sandy, compac t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, very compact, trace silt, trace 
grave I, two bou I ders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gne i s s, hard..................................... 


44I]12N0733152.1: Log by N.Y. State Dept. of Public 
Works techn i c i an. 
Sand, s i I ty, loose............................... 
Sand, coarse, loose; some gravel................. 
Silt, sandy. firm; some gravel; trace clay....... 
Silt, loose; some clay; trace fine sand.......... 
Sand, silty, loose to compact.................... 
Gnei ss, hard..................................... 


441834N0733148.1: Log by N. Y. State Dept. of Publ ic 
Works techn I c I an. 
Sand, fine, fl rm to very compact; trace si I t; 
trace grave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . 
Sand, coarse, compact; trace grave I.............. 
Sand, fine to coarse, compact.................... 


441955N07333 I 1. I : Log by Dames & Moore, consulting 
engineers and geologists. 
Sand, fine to medium, brown; with cobbles and 
boulders; occasional gravel; grading to gray 
with dep th. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gneiss, anorthosite, medium- to coarse-grained, 
crystal I ine, garnetiferous; medium hard, 
dense, unweathered. Numerous closely spaced 
bands of garnets and dark minerals dipping 
10° - 45°. Occasional slightly weathered 
closed fractures of 40° down to 20 ft in 
depth, then occasional closed fractures 
d i pp i ng 45 ° - 75 0 .............................. 
Gabbro dike, fractures dipping 45° - 90°......... 
Gnei ss, anorthosi tic............................. 
Serpentine fi lied fracture, dips 80° - 90°....... 
Gabbro dike, fractures dipping 45° - 90°......... 
Gneiss, anorthositic, with serpentine areas, 
gabbroic dikes and closed fractures............ 
Gabbro dike, closed fractures 75° - 90°.......... 
Gneiss, anorthositic; with numerous closed 
f rac tu re s. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . .. .. .. . . . . .. . .. , 


442007N0733313.1: Log by local driller. 
Sand and g rave I . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, hard, gray................................. 


442032N0732217.1: Log by Dames & Moore, consulting 
engineers and geologi sts. 
Sand, silty, grayish-brown; with some gravel and 
boulders; trace of clay........................ 
Limestone, fine to medium grained, hard, 
indurated, medium gray; crystalline. 
I rregular wavy seams of dark gray clay (hard) 
suggests that bedding dips 5 to 10°, 
ocasional calcite fi lied fractures dip 45 to 
90°.............,............................. . 


Th i ck- 
ness Dep th 
(feet) (feet) 
1.5 
10.5 1.5 
, 3 12 
10 25 
5 35 
4 40 
18 2 
10 20 
5 30 
5 35 
5 40 
11.5 45 


10 


10 


5 
15 


13 
5 


5 0 
2 5 
7 7 
4 14 
14.5 18 
10 32.5 
9 0 
14 9 
38.5 23 


41 9 
1 50 
13 51 
8 64 
9 7 2 
49 81 
23 130 
72 153 
12 0 
162 12 
4 
41+ 


ESSEX COUNTY (Continued) 


442848N0732924. I: Log by N.Y. State Dept. of Pub'ic 
Works technician. 
Topso i I .. .... .. . . . . . .. . . .. . .. .. .. . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . 
Silt, sandy, loose; trace gravel................ 
Silt. sandy, loose, trace clay.................. 
Sand, silty, loose to compact; with some gravel. 
Anorthosite, hard............................... 


443137N0732416.1: Log by King Brothers, dri Ilers. 
Sand........................................... . 
Sand and clay................................... 
Stone and clay........,......................... 
Sand and clay................................... 
G rave I .. .. .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. .. . . . . 


FRANKLI N COUNTY 


10 


443252N0735833.I: Log by Dames & Moore consulting 
engineers and geologists. 
Sand, si Ity, dark brown; wi th some gravel; more 
gravel to 30 ft............................... 
Silt, sandy, gray; with trace of clay; In inch 
layers of fine to medium sand; boulders and 
coarser at about 40 ft........................ 
sa
:
n


 t

 

o
:
i

)
. 


. 






. 




..... 
Sand, silty, gray; with some cobbles and 
bou I de rs.. . . .. .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . . . 
Gravel, cobbles, boulders; with gray, silty 
sand.........................,............... . 
Syenite, medium to coarse grained, hard, dense, 
mass i ve, gray................................. 
Gabbro, fine grained, hard, dense, dark gray 
to black...................................... 
Syenite, medium to coarse grained, hard, dense.. 


20 


30 
35 


o 
4 
7 
15 


FU L TON COUNTY 
430233N0741747.1: Log by (?). 
Sand........................................... . 
Sand and g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sh a Ie. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . . . .. . . . .. 


17 
30 


430256N0740912.1: Log by (?). 
Muck, black............,........................ 
Sand, wh i te..................................... 
Clay and hardpan................................ 


430323N0741219. I: Log by (?). 
Ha rdpan and bou I de rS.. .. . .. .. . .. . . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. 
G rave I . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


43051 lN0740845. 1 Log by (?). 
Sand. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 
Hardpan. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., . . . . . .. . 
Sand........................................... . 
Do 1 om i te . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. 


430815N0741420.1: Log by (?) 
Cl ay, hardpan, and boulders..................... 
Sand and grave 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


HAM I L TON COUNTY 


432434N0741615.1: Log by Robert Danpier, owner. 
Sand, fine...................................... 
G rave I . . . . .. . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 


432830N0741220.1: Log by G. Anderson, driller. 
Gravel; wi th some cobb les....................... 
Sand, medill11; light brown....................... 
Sand, fine to medium; orange.................... 


432947N0742146.1: Log by Caisson Wells, Inc. 
Sand, si 1 ty........................,............ 
Clay, sandy..................................... 
Sand and grave I, silty.......................... 
Sand, very s i I ty................................ 
Rock.. ......................... ................. 


432948N0742135.1: Log by Caisson Wel1s, Inc. 
Muck........................................... . 
Clay, sandy..................................... 
Sand and g rave I; with clay 0 r s i It. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 
Hardpan. . ... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


SARATOGA COUNTY 


430522N0740224.1: Log by (?). 
Sand and gravel................................. 


43085000733607.1: Log by (?). 
Clay. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 
Sh a Ie. . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 


431012N0733552. 1: Log by (?). 
Clay.. . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. 
Sha I e. . . .... . . . . .. . . .. . . .... . . . .. . . . . . . . . .... . . . 


126 - 


Th i ck- 
ness Depth 
( feet) (feet) 
I 0 
6 I 
6 7 
22 13 
14 35 
12 0 
46 12 
I 58 
19 59 
2 78 


30 
10 30 
12 40 
52 
52 60 
19 112 
23 131 
]I 154 
100 0 
28 100 
7 128 
2 0 
18 2 
15 20 
44 0 
2 44 
45 0 
29 45 
11 74 
6 85 
70 0 
i 70 
96 0 
I 96 
6 0 
10 6 
6 16 
12 0 
15 12 
2 27 
10 29 
39 
3 0 
6 3 
17 9 
10 26 
30 
45 0 
40 45 
3 
122 



Appendix 6 


Logs of selected wells and test holes in the 
Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region (continued) 


SARATOGA COUNTY (Cont i nued) 


431047N0734453.1: Log by (1). 
Clay. . . . . . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . . . .. .. . .. .. . (1) 
Ti 11............................................. (1) 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 


431 I 7.8N07341 58. 1 : Log by (1). 
Sand......................................... .... 
Clay....................................... ...... 


431337N0734810.1: Log by (?). 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 
Crystal I ine rock................................. 16 


431338N0735057.1: Log by (?). 
Sand and grave 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 


431418N0735034.1: Log by (1). 
Sand, gray....................................... 36 
Sand, ye 11 ow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 
Sand, dark....................................... 31 


431537N0735353.1: Log by (7). 
Ti 11............................................. 53 
Crystal 1 ine rock................................. 17 


431540N0733624.1: Log by (1). 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 
Sh ale. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .. . .. 79 
431556N0740420.1: Log by (1). 
Sand, wh i te . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 


431712N0734955.1: Log by (1). 
Sand, fine....................................... 225 


431806N0733626.1: Log by (1). 
Clay............................................. 7 
Li me stone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 


4318Q9N0735251.1: Log by (1). 
Sand and grave I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 


431910N0735543.1: Log by (?). 
Sand. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . 70 
Till; fine sand at 174 ft......................... 104 


WARREN COUNTY 
431627N0734330.1: Log by R. E. Chapman Co. 
Sand, fine and medium............................ 
Ti II or hardpan, with boulders................... 
Sand and grave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 
Hardpan, wi th no boulders........................ 


431646N0734154.1: Log by R. E. Chapman Co. 
Sand and grave 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Till or hardpan, with boulders................... 
Sand, fine and med i um; some clay................. 
Hardpan, wi th no boulders........................ 


431710N0734236.B: Log by R. E. Chapman Co. 
Sand, fine and medium............................ 
Clay and fine grave I. .. .. . ..... .. ... .. ... .. . . .. .. 
Hardpan; with no boulders........................ 


431723N0734141.1: Log by R. E. Chapman Co. 
Sand, med i urn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, medium; some clay.......................... 
Sand, fine; some clay............................ 


431746N0734034.1: Log by R. E. Chapman Co. 
Sand, fine and med i um.. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . 
Sand, fine; some clay............................ 
S i 1 t and clay.................................... 
Sand, fine; some clay............................ 


431812N0734052.1: Log by R. E. Chapman Co. 
Topsoi I.......................................... 
Sand, coarse..................................... 
Sand, fine and medium............................ 
Sand, coarse; some clay.......................... 
Sand, fine; some clay............................ 


431915N0731950.1: Log by R. E. Chapman Co. 
Sand, med i um. .. . .. . . .. . . . .. .. . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . 
Sand, fine and medium; traces of clay............ 


431915N0734352.1: Log by R. E. Chapman Co. 
Sand, fine and medium............................ 
Sand, coarse..................................... 
Hardpan, wi th no boulders........................ 
Sand, fine; some clay............................ 
Hardpan, wi th no boulders........................ 


Th i ck- 
ness 
(feet) 


8 0 
9 8 
12 17 
2 29 
14 0 
12 14 
23 26 
51 49 
32 0 
17 32 
5 49 
7 a 
41 7 
109 48 
30 0 
II 30 
21 41 
55 62 
2 a 
12 2 
24 14 
32 38 
60 70 
19 0 
63 19 
15 0 
14 15 
7 29 
14 36 
2 50 


WARREN COUNTY (Con t i nued) 


Depth 
(feet) 
a 
(1) 
48 


431956N0734204.1: Log by Hall & Co., Inc. 
Topso i I; b lack, sandy........................... 
Sand, coarse to fine, brown..................... 
Sand, coarse to fine; with small gravel and 
cI ay binder................................... 
Sand, fine; some small gravel, clay binder 
(stands up)................................... 
Grave 1, medi um to sma 11; with some sand and 
silt; some water.............................. 


a 
14 


432006N0734024.B: Log by R. E. Chapman Co. 
Topso i 1 . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, med i un; some cI ay.. .. .. .. . .. . . .. .. . . .. . .. . 
Sand, fine; some clay........................... 


a 
36 
40 


432015N0734132. I: Log by R. E. Chapman Co. 
Sand, fine and medium........................... 
Sand and grave I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 
Sand, fine and medium........................... 
Sand, fine and medium; some clay................ 


a 
53 


432017N0733639.B: Log by R. E. Chapman Co. 
Topso I 1 . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay........................................... . 
Till or hardpan; with boulders.................. 


o 
79 


432027N0735018. I: Log by John Cheyer, owner. 
Sand and grave 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hardpan. . . .. _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 
Sand and grave 1, dry............................ 
Rock........................................... . 


432054N0734138.1: Log by R. E. Chapman Co. 
Topso i 1 . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine and medium........................... 
S i It.. .. .. ... . . . .. . .. . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . .. .. . . .. .. . . 
Sand and grave I . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Grave 1, coarse.................................. 
Grave 1, fine.................................... 
Sand and g rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


o 
70 


432104N0734114.1: Log by R. E. Chapman Co. 
Sand, coarse.................................... 
Sand, some clay................................. 
Sand and grave 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand and gravel, traces of clay................. 


432113N0734053. I : Log by R. E. Chapman Co. 
Sand, coa r se. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand and grave 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coa r se. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


432116N0735004.1: Log by Balmat Exford, dri 11er. 
Organic materi aI, clay.......................... 
Sand, coarse ;wi th bird' s-eye to pea-s i ze grave I; 
static water level at ground surface.......... 
Sand, mediun; wi th bird's-eye to pea-s i ze 
grave I......... ............................... 
Sand, fine to coarse; with bird's-eye to pea- 
size gravel; static water level 1ft 1 inch... 
Sand, coarser; with bi rd's-eye to pea-size 
gravel; heaving formation..................... 
Sand, fine; with brown clay; water shutoff at 
42 ft......................................... 


432124N0734105.1: Log by R. E. Chapman Co. 
Topso 11 or peat................................. 
Till or hardpan; with boulders.................. 
Sand and grave I; traces of clay................. 
Clay and fine grave1............................ 


432127N0734235.1: Log by R. E. Chapman Co. 
Sand and grave 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine; some clay........................... 


432140N0734111.1: Log by R. E. Chapman Co. 
Sand and gravel; traces of clay................. 
Sand, fine; some clay........................... 
Clay and sane g rave I . . . .. . .. . .. . . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . 


432147N0734106.1: Log by R. E. Chapman Co. 
Topsoi I or peat................................. 
Sand, fine and med I l!I" .......................... 
Sand and gravel; traces of clay................. 
Sand, fine; Suuoe clay........................... 


432153N0734114.1: Log by James Kennison, owner. 
Sand........................................... . 
Qu I cksand. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sha 1 e. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. 


432212N0733737.3B: Log by R. E. Chapman Co. 
Topsoil. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, med i un; wit h some clay.................... 
Till or hardpan; with boulders.................. 


127 


Th I ck- 
ness Dep th 
(feet) (feet) 
1.5 a 
107.5 \.5 
109 
21 116 
137 
5 0 
55 5 
34 60 
15 a 
44 15 
22 59 
54 81 
3 a 
25 3 
2 28 
29 a 
12 29 
39 41 
133 80 
5 
5 5 
30 10 
3 40 
12 43 
5 55 
3 60 
17 0 
20 17 
10 37 
26 47 
17 a 
43 17 
4 60 
14 
14 
20 
25 
30 
37 
3 a 
15 3 
33 18 
4 51 
25 a 
47 25 
24 a 
32 24 
5 56 
6 a 
20 6 
24 26 
4 50 
40 0 
40 40 
33 80 
2 0 
14 2 
5 16 



Appendix 6 


Logs of selected wells and test holes in the 
Lake Champlain-Upper Hudson region (continued) 


WARREN COUNTY (Cont i nued) 


Th i ck- 
ness 
(feet) 


Depth 
(feet) 


432228N0733903.1 Log by Mrs. William Harney, Jr. 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 0 
Grave I.. .... . .... . . .. ...... . . . .. . . . ... ... . .. ..... 40 100 
Bed rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 140 


432252N0733655.1: Log by R. E. Chapman Co. 
Topso i I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay.............................. ............... 
Clay, some sand.................................. 
Sand, fine; some clay............................ 
Clay, some sand.................................. 


433318N0734452. I: Log by Charles Shave, owner. 
Sand, coarse..................................... 
Clay, blue....................................... 
Rock............................ ................. 


43335100735044.1: Log by George Lucia, dri Iler. 
Co bb I e S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
G rave I, sandy.................................... 
Rock............................................ . 


434219N0734825.1: Log by Elmer Mi ller, owner. 
Clay and muck..................................... 
Hardpan....................... ................... 
Clay, blue....................................... 
Sand............................................ . 
Rock............................................ . 


434420N0740257.1: Log by William Stetson, owner. 
Grave 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Qu i cksand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock............................................ . 


WASH I NGTON COUNTY 


430450N0733256.1: Log by (7). 
Sand, med i urn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, blue....................................... 
Clay, redd ish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel..... _........... .......................... 


431819N0733356.1: Log by (7). 
Sand............................................ . 
Clay, ye 11 ow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Li me stone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


431912N0733426.1: Log by (1) 
Sand, med i urn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Quicksand, brown................................. 
Clay, blue............... ....................... 
Qu i cksand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Limestone, black................................. 


43240IN0733542.1: Log by Mrs. D. Harris, owner. 
Sand and grave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Quicksand, wet..... ................. 0'" ......... 
Clay, wet........................................ 
Clay and qu i cksand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gran i te. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


432806N0732932. I : Log by (7). 
Clay............................................ . 
G rave I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


433414N0732238.1: Log by (7). 
Clay............................................ . 
Gravel................... ....................... 


10 0 
44 10 
24 54 
16 78 
24 94 
7 0 
48 7 
105 55 
15 0 
30 IS 
111.5 45 
20 0 
5 (7) 20 
70 25(7) 
5 (7) 95 (7) 
102 100 
15 0 
20 IS 
7 35 
42 
30 0 
50 30 
25 80 
5 105 
27 0 
23 27 
125 50 
20 0 
45 20 
55 65 
15 120 
22 135 
50 0 
70 50 
60 120 
23 180 
53 203 
60 0 
12 60 
206 0 
206 


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oj< 



NEW YORK STATE WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION 


MEMBERS 


CONSERV A TION COMMISSIONER, CHAIRMAN 
R. Stewart Kilborne 


COMMISSIONER OF TRANSPORTATION 
T. W. Parker 


A TTORNEY GENERAL 
Louis J. Lefkowitz 


COMMISSIONER OF HEALTH 
Hollis S. Ingraham. M.D. 


COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE AND MARKETS 
Don J. Wickham 


COMMISSIONER OF COMMERCE 
Neal L. Moylan 


COMMISSIONER OF OFFICE FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT 
John J. Burns 


ADVISORY MEMBERS 


REPRESENTING INDUSTRY 
David C. KnowJton 


REPRESENTING AGRICULTURE 
Richard T. McGuire 


REPRESENTING SPORTSMEN 
Michael Petruska 


REPRESENTING POLITICAL SUBDIVISIONS 
Earl H. Bump 


SECRETARY TO THE COMMISSION 
Robert S. Drew 


153 


NEW YORK STATE CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT 
DIVISION OF WATER RESOURCES 
50 Wolf Road, Albany, New York 12205 
Telephone (518) 457-3495 


ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER AND DIRECTOR 
F. W. Montanari 


ASSISTANT DIRECTOR 
Nicholas L. Barbarossa 


BUREAU DIRECTORS 
PLANNING 
John A. Finck 
REGULA TION 
Edwin L. V opelak 


REGIONAL OFFICES 
EASTERN REGIONAL ENGINEER 
Edward A. Karath 
Conservation Department, 
Division of Water Resources 
50 Wolf Road 
Albany, New York 12205 
(518) 457-4351 
CENTRAL REGIONAL ENGINEER 
Frank S. Davenport 
Conservation Department, 
Division of Water Resources 
418 East State Street 
Ithaca, New York 14850 
(607) 273-9393 
WESTERN REGIONAL ENGINEER 
John C. McMahon 
Conservation Department, 
Division of Water Resources 
4184 Seneca Street 
West Seneca, New York 14224 
(716) 674-6700 


UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
Walter J. Hickel, Secretary 
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 
DIRECTOR 
William T. Pecora 


CHIEF HYDROLOGIST 
Ernest L. Hendricks 


REGIONAL HYDROLOGIST 
George E. Ferguson 


DISTRICT HYDROLOGIST 
Ro be rt J. Dingman